What is the Relationship of Biology with other Sciences? | Life Persona
The biology Groups and relates to the sciences that study life as an energy state, of all living beings, their interrelations and their links to the. Different fields of sciences like biology, chemistry, physics and. What is the relationship of economics and other social sciences? In School Subjects. Biology, the study of living things, represents more than a subject in school. On Earth Other biological processes aid in food production.
Whether insect or bird, pollinators continue the process of plant life, giving humans and other animals food and beverages to eat and drink. Clothing and Textiles People wear clothing made from biological substances. Cotton provides material for many clothing items. Linen, made from flax, is another plant-based fabric. Even polyester is made from biomass in the form of fossil fuels.
Everyday Uses of Biology | Sciencing
Plants provide the basis for fabric dyes and nylon. Carpets, upholstery, curtains, towels and countless other household textiles are made from plants. Beauty and Personal Care Biological sources make up the ingredients for many personal care and beauty products.
Shampoo, henna dye, lotion, cosmetics, perfumes, diapers, loofahs, nail polish remover and soap represent only a few examples of biology-based everyday items.
The Feynman Lectures on Physics Vol. I Ch. 3: The Relation of Physics to Other Sciences
Transportation and Leisure Tires are made from the rubber of the rubber tree. Wood serves as the source for sports equipment such as baseball and cricket bats, bowling pins and lanes. People often play sports on living grass turf.
Musical instruments such as clarinets, violins, drumsticks, drums and pianos contain biologically sourced components. Many boats are still made of wood, as are docks. Boaters still use plant-based ropes.
Buildings Many homes around the world are built from plants. For example, physics allows explaining how bats use sound waves to move in the dark, or how the movement of the limbs of different animals works. It was also discoveries of physics that allowed to understand that there are flowers that arrange their seeds or petals following a series of Fibonacci, increasing their exposure to light and nutrients. But the contribution is reciprocal since there are cases in which biology helps to better understand physical laws.
Physicist Richard Feynman said that biology contributed to the formulation of the law of conservation of energy, for example. There are Branches of physics Who are making contributions in research on the origin of life and the structure and mechanics of organic life, such as astrophysics and biophysics, respectively.
Both disciplines find their main limitation, so far, in the explanation of the origin of life or the encryption of Traits in DNA. Chemistry In this case, it is a science whose Object of study Is the matter and its composition, so it is very useful to identify and understand the reactions that occur between the different substances that make up and intervene in the different processes that the organism experiences.
Its relevance is more clearly recognized in the description of metabolic processes such as breathingDigestion or photosynthesis. Mathematics Biology requires this science to process, analyze and report experimental research data and to represent relationships between some biological phenomena.
For example, to determine the prevalence of one species over another in a given space, mathematical rules are useful. History Biology requires this science To address the Evolutionary process of species. It also allows you to carry out an inventory of species by season or historical era. Engineering The relationship between biology and engineering It is also quite symbiotic as the progress of both disciplines is fed back.
For an engineer, knowledge about brain functioning is useful for designing algorithms, for example; While for a biologist, advances in medical engineering, for example, are very useful. Algorithms such as Deep Learning, or Non-Negative Matrix Factorization NMFare based on biological data called"biomedical signals"that are processed in a very specialized way to provide reliable information on the operation Of some human organs. In fact, techniques are being developed to improve the technology used in the processing of these signals to be used for Medical diagnostics Using less invasive methods.
Sociology The descriptive methods of sociology Are useful for categorizing and organizing different species as well as their behavior. Thus perhaps, in some way, the specific instructions for the manufacture of proteins are contained in the specific series of the DNA.
Attached to each sugar along the line, and linking the two chains together, are certain pairs of cross-links. Whatever the letters may be in one chain, each one must have its specific complementary letter on the other chain. What then about reproduction? Suppose we split this chain in two. How can we make another one just like it? This is the central unsolved problem in biology today. The first clues, or pieces of information, however, are these: There are in the cell tiny particles called ribosomes, and it is now known that that is the place where proteins are made.
But the ribosomes are not in the nucleus, where the DNA and its instructions are.
Something seems to be the matter. However, it is also known that little molecule pieces come off the DNA—not as long as the big DNA molecule that carries all the information itself, but like a small section of it. This is called RNA, but that is not essential. It is a kind of copy of the DNA, a short copy. The RNA, which somehow carries a message as to what kind of protein to make goes over to the ribosome; that is known.
When it gets there, protein is synthesized at the ribosome. That is also known. However, the details of how the amino acids come in and are arranged in accordance with a code that is on the RNA are, as yet, still unknown.
We do not know how to read it. Certainly no subject or field is making more progress on so many fronts at the present moment, than biology, and if we were to name the most powerful assumption of all, which leads one on and on in an attempt to understand life, it is that all things are made of atoms, and that everything that living things do can be understood in terms of the jigglings and wigglings of atoms.
Astronomy is older than physics. In fact, it got physics started by showing the beautiful simplicity of the motion of the stars and planets, the understanding of which was the beginning of physics.
But the most remarkable discovery in all of astronomy is that the stars are made of atoms of the same kind as those on the earth. Atoms liberate light which has definite frequencies, something like the timbre of a musical instrument, which has definite pitches or frequencies of sound.
When we are listening to several different tones we can tell them apart, but when we look with our eyes at a mixture of colors we cannot tell the parts from which it was made, because the eye is nowhere near as discerning as the ear in this connection.
However, with a spectroscope we can analyze the frequencies of the light waves and in this way we can see the very tunes of the atoms that are in the different stars. As a matter of fact, two of the chemical elements were discovered on a star before they were discovered on the earth. Helium was discovered on the sun, whence its name, and technetium was discovered in certain cool stars. This, of course, permits us to make headway in understanding the stars, because they are made of the same kinds of atoms which are on the earth.
Now we know a great deal about the atoms, especially concerning their behavior under conditions of high temperature but not very great density, so that we can analyze by statistical mechanics the behavior of the stellar substance. Even though we cannot reproduce the conditions on the earth, using the basic physical laws we often can tell precisely, or very closely, what will happen. So it is that physics aids astronomy. Strange as it may seem, we understand the distribution of matter in the interior of the sun far better than we understand the interior of the earth.
What goes on inside a star is better understood than one might guess from the difficulty of having to look at a little dot of light through a telescope, because we can calculate what the atoms in the stars should do in most circumstances. One of the most impressive discoveries was the origin of the energy of the stars, that makes them continue to burn. One of the men who discovered this was out with his girlfriend the night after he realized that nuclear reactions must be going on in the stars in order to make them shine.
She was not impressed with being out with the only man who, at that moment, knew why stars shine. Well, it is sad to be alone, but that is the way it is in this world. Furthermore, ultimately, the manufacture of various chemical elements proceeds in the centers of the stars, from hydrogen.
How do we know? Because there is a clue. The proportions are purely the result of nuclear reactions. By looking at the proportions of the isotopes in the cold, dead ember which we are, we can discover what the furnace was like in which the stuff of which we are made was formed. Astronomy is so close to physics that we shall study many astronomical things as we go along. First, meteorology and the weather. Of course the instruments of meteorology are physical instruments, and the development of experimental physics made these instruments possible, as was explained before.
However, the theory of meteorology has never been satisfactorily worked out by the physicist. It turns out to be very sensitive, and even unstable. If you have ever seen water run smoothly over a dam, and then turn into a large number of blobs and drops as it falls, you will understand what I mean by unstable.
You know the condition of the water before it goes over the spillway; it is perfectly smooth; but the moment it begins to fall, where do the drops begin? What determines how big the lumps are going to be and where they will be? That is not known, because the water is unstable.
What is the Relationship of Biology with other Sciences?
Even a smooth moving mass of air, in going over a mountain turns into complex whirlpools and eddies. In many fields we find this situation of turbulent flow that we cannot analyze today. Quickly we leave the subject of weather, and discuss geology!
The question basic to geology is, what makes the earth the way it is? The most obvious processes are in front of your very eyes, the erosion processes of the rivers, the winds, etc. It is easy enough to understand these, but for every bit of erosion there is an equal amount of something else going on.
Mountains are no lower today, on the average, than they were in the past. There must be mountain-forming processes.
Relation of Biology with other Sciences
You will find, if you study geology, that there are mountain-forming processes and volcanism, which nobody understands but which is half of geology. The phenomenon of volcanoes is really not understood.
What makes an earthquake is, ultimately, not understood. It is understood that if something is pushing something else, it snaps and will slide—that is all right.
But what pushes, and why? The theory is that there are currents inside the earth—circulating currents, due to the difference in temperature inside and outside—which, in their motion, push the surface slightly.
Thus if there are two opposite circulations next to each other, the matter will collect in the region where they meet and make belts of mountains which are in unhappy stressed conditions, and so produce volcanoes and earthquakes. What about the inside of the earth?
A great deal is known about the speed of earthquake waves through the earth and the density of distribution of the earth. However, physicists have been unable to get a good theory as to how dense a substance should be at the pressures that would be expected at the center of the earth. In other words, we cannot figure out the properties of matter very well in these circumstances. We do much less well with the earth than we do with the conditions of matter in the stars.
The mathematics involved seems a little too difficult, so far, but perhaps it will not be too long before someone realizes that it is an important problem, and really works it out.
The other aspect, of course, is that even if we did know the density, we cannot figure out the circulating currents. Nor can we really work out the properties of rocks at high pressure.
Incidentally, psychoanalysis is not a science: The witch doctor has a theory that a disease like malaria is caused by a spirit which comes into the air; it is not cured by shaking a snake over it, but quinine does help malaria. So, if you are sick, I would advise that you go to the witch doctor because he is the man in the tribe who knows the most about the disease; on the other hand, his knowledge is not science.
Psychoanalysis has not been checked carefully by experiment, and there is no way to find a list of the number of cases in which it works, the number of cases in which it does not work, etc. The other branches of psychology, which involve things like the physiology of sensation—what happens in the eye, and what happens in the brain—are, if you wish, less interesting. But some small but real progress has been made in studying them.
One of the most interesting technical problems may or may not be called psychology. The central problem of the mind, if you will, or the nervous system, is this: In what way is it different?
We do not know where to look, or what to look for, when something is memorized. We do not know what it means, or what change there is in the nervous system, when a fact is learned. This is a very important problem which has not been solved at all.
Assuming, however, that there is some kind of memory thing, the brain is such an enormous mass of interconnecting wires and nerves that it probably cannot be analyzed in a straightforward manner. There is an analog of this to computing machines and computing elements, in that they also have a lot of lines, and they have some kind of element, analogous, perhaps, to the synapse, or connection of one nerve to another.
This is a very interesting subject which we have not the time to discuss further—the relationship between thinking and computing machines. It must be appreciated, of course, that this subject will tell us very little about the real complexities of ordinary human behavior.
All human beings are so different. It will be a long time before we get there.