Psychology Department Participant Pool at the University of Windsor. .. sampled, and (b) dyadic analyses were employed to test the inherent. A Generic Model of Dyadic Social Relationships . experimental psychology , evolutionary social psychology , and perceptions of .. For each pair, one shall examine each social action and test into which category of. Need relationships in dyadic attraction and rejection were studied within a fully Bowerman, C., Day, B. A test of the theory of complementary needs as applied.
We find that these relationships aggregate into exactly six disjoint categories of action fluxes. These six categories describe all possible relationships arising from our model, singly or in combination. We propose a mapping between these categories and the four basic social relationships, or relational models RMsdefined by RMT. Namely, four of the six categories map to the RMs, while the remaining two correspond to asocial and null interactions.
We argue that this categorization and mapping show that the RMs constitute an exhaustive set of coordinated dyadic social relationships. To take into account that real social interactions involve an infinite variety of social actions, we generalize our model to the presence of any number N of social actions and show that this leads to the same six categories of action fluxes. Relational models theory was introduced by Alan Fiske [ 12 ] in the field of anthropology to study how people construct their social relationships.
RMT posits that people use four elementary models to organize most aspects of most social interactions in all societies. RMT has motivated a considerable amount of research that supports, develops or applies the theory, not only in its original field of social cognition [ 3 — 6 ], but also in diverse disciplines such as neuroscience [ 7 ], psychopathology [ 8 ], ethnography [ 9 ], experimental psychology [ 10 ], evolutionary social psychology [ 11 ], and perceptions of justice [ 12 ], to name a few.
For an overview of this research, see [ 1314 ]. In the Communal Sharing CS model, people perceive in-group members as equivalent and undifferentiated.
APA Dictionary of Psychology
CS relationships are based on principles of unity, identity, conformity and undifferentiated sharing of resources. Decision-making is achieved through consensus. CS is typically manifested in close family or friendship bonds, teams, nationalities, ethnicities or between soldiers. In Authority Ranking AR relationships, people are asymmetrically ranked in a linear hierarchy. Subordinates are expected to defer, respect and obey high-rankers, who take precedence.
Conversely, superiors protect and lead low-rankers. Subordinates are thus not exploited and also benefit from the relationship. Resources are distributed according to ranks and decision-making follows a top-down chain of command. Equality Matching EM relationships are based on a principle of equal balance and one-to-one reciprocity. Salient EM manifestations are turn-taking, democratic voting one person, one votein-kind reciprocity, coin flipping, distribution of equal shares, and tit-for-tat retaliation.
The Market Pricing MP model is based on a principle of proportionality. Relationships are organized with reference to socially meaningful ratios and rates, such as prices, cost-benefit analyses or time optimization.
Rewards and punishment are proportional to merit. Abstract symbols, typically money, are used to represent relative values. MP relationships are not necessarily individualistic; for instance, utilitarian judgments seeking the greatest good for the greatest number are manifestations of MP.
The four relational models have in common that they suppose a coordination between individuals with reference to a shared model. To these, Fiske adds two limiting cases that do not involve any other-regarding abilities or coordination [ 1 ] pp.
In order to better understand RMT, it is helpful to locate it in the landscape of other social, political and economical theories. Here we follow closely the review made by Senior et al. RMT is identified as a theory of constrained relativism, which lies between the two extremes of rational choice analysis and poststructuralism.
Theories belonging to the two latter domains have dominated political science, sociology and economy for several decades, while constrained relativism has had less influence and is not as widely known. Researchers also suggested that intimacy should be conceptualized in an interpersonal framework as it includes mutual self-disclosure, trust, and communication Reis and Patrick, ; Ferreira et al. Materials and Methods Participants Both partners of 75 heterosexual couples who had been in a romantic relationship for at least 1 month participated in the study.
Participants were recruited from undergraduate courses at a large university. Students received extra course credit for their participation in the study. Data from one couple were not included in the analysis because the couple did not follow the instructions. All the couples were in a dating relationship, and three couples were living together.
Frontiers | The Relationship between Intimacy Change and Passion: A Dyadic Diary Study | Psychology
The average age of the participants was Internal reliability was 0. This measure was used for measurement validity, and it was not included in models testing main hypothesis. Participants rated the items on a 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree scale. Before daily alphas were computed, items were within-person centered to remove the between-person effects from the ratings.
Daily alphas ranged from 0.
Participants rated the items on a 1 not at all to 7 extremely scale. Procedure The study involved three phases: Initially, participants were invited to the lab to receive an orientation session on how to complete the daily records.
Participants were instructed to complete the records every day before going to bed. The researcher also explained the importance of completing the records independently from each other and told participants to keep their responses private.
After the orientation session, each participant received an e-mail providing a link for the baseline questionnaire packet that included demographics and person-level measures 1. To ensure that participants had sufficient time to complete the questionnaires, they were given 1 week before they proceeded to the diary phase of the study. During the diary phase, participants submitted an online record at the end of each day for 14 consecutive days. The time-stamped data were checked to confirm that the participants followed the instructions and completed the records on-time.
The average number of completed records was Two participants completed an extra record and these records were excluded from the analysis.
Data Analytic Strategy The data structure was hierarchically nested as two individuals were nested within 74 couples that were then crossed with 14 days. Because the data consisted of distinguishable dyads, we used a multilevel model with two-intercepts Bolger and Shrout, to adjust for non-independence.
The two-intercept model approach allows separate estimates for females and males. The female dummy-coded variable 1 for females and 0 for males and the male dummy coded variable 1 for males and 0 for females are multiplied by a predictor to have two separate estimates for females and males. Therefore, we reported the separate estimates for each gender using bf for females and bm for males.
This structure allowed the errors to be auto correlated to model the correlation from 1 day to the next Kenny et al. In all of the analyses, day-level predictor variables were within-person centered, and person-level predictors intimacy or passion were controlled. All of the regression coefficients reported in multilevel analyses are unstandardized. Results Results for Measurement Validity To establish measurement validity for person-level measures, we conducted a confirmatory factory analysis for the person-level triangular love scale, and compared the three factor intimacy, passion, commitment structure with one-factor love structure.
We also conducted an exploratory principal component factor analysis.
Results mainly showed a three factor pattern. Out of 15 intimacy items, two of them mainly loaded on the other factors, and another two items cross-loaded on the other factors. Out of 15 passion items, two of them mainly loaded on the other factors. Next, we conducted confirmatory multilevel factor analyses to establish measurement validity for day-level measures. We created a single factor latent variable model with seven indicators, and a two factor model using four intimacy and three passion items.
However, these findings might not be robust because the sample size was small compared to the number of parameters estimated in the model. We also conducted additional analyses using the other variables in the dataset as outcome variables to examine discriminant validity. First, we had one item measuring whether people wanted to express their love to their partners using physical contact expressions. We expected that this variable should be more closely related to passion rather than intimacy.
Second, we examined whether these variables predicted secrecy from partner. As intimacy is closely related to self-disclosure, we expected that intimacy, compared to passion, should be a stronger predictor of secrecy.
Third, we conducted the same analysis for trust in partner. Trust is associated with self-disclosure; thus it should also be more strongly predicted by intimacy. These findings show that intimacy measure was more strongly related to intimacy related constructs, whereas passion measure was more strongly related to physical contact.
We used a model with two random intercepts, two random slopes, and person-level intimacy as a control variable. The findings are summarized in Table 1. The results indicated that increases in intimacy predicted greater passion for both males and females. Intimacy change predicting passion.
A Generic Model of Dyadic Social Relationships
We also examined the alternative hypothesis by testing whether changes in passion predict intimacy passion change model. We used the same analysis approach with residualized daily passion scores along with person-level passion as predictors of daily intimacy. Passion change predicting intimacy. Actor and partner effects were estimated in the same step to examine the unique effect of each in predicting the criterion. These findings Table 3 showed that individuals reported greater passion when their partners reported greater increases in their intimacy, independent from increases in their own intimacy.
Actor and partner intimacy change predicting passion.
We also tested the partner effects for the passion change model. The findings are presented in Table 4. Overall, these results indicated that individuals reported greater intimacy when their partners reported greater increases in their passion independent from increases in their own passion.
Actor and partner passion change predicting intimacy. Finally, we conducted a multilevel path analysis to test all of the associations simultaneously.