Cyber-stalking: When looking at other people online becomes a problem - BBC Newsbeat
Abuse and family violence don't always come in the form of physical threats or violence. Online behavior by a partner, family member or someone else can also . isn't a single definition of a cyberstalker - they can be either strangers to the victim or have a former/present relationship. Stalking usually begins as the relationship is ending, and often the stalker has Criminal definitions vary from state to state, and you can check your state's stalking Posting or sharing information about someone via the Internet or by word of.
They may also use the Internet to research and compile personal information about the victim, to use in order to harass him or her. In one noted case inactress Patricia Arquette quit Facebook after alleged cyberstalking. In her last post, Arquette explained that her security warned her Facebook friends to never accept friend requests from people they do not actually know.
Arquette stressed that just because people seemed to be fans did not mean they were safe. The media issued a statement that Arquette planned to communicate with fans exclusively through her Twitter account in the future. These include publishing lies and doctored photographs, threats of rape and other violence, posting sensitive personal information about victims, e-mailing damaging statements about victims to their employers, and manipulating search engines to make damaging material about the victim more prominent.
As members reinforce each others' beliefs, they fail to see themselves as individuals and lose a sense of personal responsibility for their destructive acts. In doing so they dehumanize their victims, becoming more aggressive when they believe they are supported by authority figures. Internet service providers and website owners are sometimes blamed for not speaking out against this type of harassment. In a group of anonymous individuals attacked Sierra, threatening her with rape and strangulation, publishing her home address and Social Security number, and posting doctored photographs of her.
Frightened, Sierra cancelled her speaking engagements and shut down her blog, writing "I will never feel the same. I will never be the same. The stalker is a predator who can wait patiently until vulnerable victims appear, such as women or children, or may enjoy pursuing a particular person, whether personally familiar to them or unknown.
The harasser enjoys and demonstrates their power to pursue and psychologically damage the victim. They may engage in live chat harassment or flaming or they may send electronic viruses and unsolicited e-mails. Conversely, the acts of cyberstalkers may become more intense, such as repeatedly instant messaging their targets. When prosecuted, many stalkers have unsuccessfully attempted to justify their behavior based on their use of public forums, as opposed to direct contact.
Once they get a reaction from the victim, they will typically attempt to track or follow the victim's internet activity. Classic cyberstalking behavior includes the tracing of the victim's IP address in an attempt to verify their home or place of employment.
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- Every Step You Take: Stalking in Dating Relationships
Cyberstalking legislation Legislation on cyberstalking varies from country to country. Cyberstalking and cyberbullying are relatively new phenomena, but that does not mean that crimes committed through the network are not punishable under legislation drafted for that purpose.
Although there are often existing laws that prohibit stalking or harassment in a general sense, legislators sometimes believe that such laws are inadequate or do not go far enough, and thus bring forward new legislation to address this perceived shortcoming. In the United Statesfor example, nearly every state has laws that address cyberstalking, cyberbullying, or both. Unlike many US jurisdictions they do not require the victim to have felt fear or distress as a result of the behaviour, only that a reasonable person would have felt this way.
In some states, the anti-stalking laws operate extra-territorially, meaning that an individual can be charged with stalking if either they or the victim are in the relevant state. Most Australian states provide the option of a restraining order in cases of stalking, breach of which is punishable as a criminal offence. There has been relatively little research into Australian court outcomes in stalking cases, although Freckelton found that in the state of Victoriamost stalkers received fines or community based dispositions.
Canada Section of the Criminal Codetitled "criminal harassment",  addresses acts which are termed "stalking" in many other jurisdictions.
Every Step You Take: Stalking in Dating Relationships | National Center for Health Research
The provisions of the section came into force in August with the intent of further strengthening laws protecting women. Section has withstood Charter challenges.
The definition is not strict and allows "similar behaviour" to also be classified as stalking. India InIndian Parliament made amendments to the Indian Penal Codeintroducing stalking as a criminal offence. A man committing the offence of stalking would be liable for imprisonment up to three years for the first offence, and shall also be liable to fine and for any subsequent conviction would be liable for imprisonment up to five years and with fine.
Italy Following a series of high-profile incidents that came to public attention in the past years, a law was proposed in Juneand became effective in February D. If the perpetrator of the offense is a subject tied to the victim by kinship or that is or has been in the past involved in a relationship with the victim i. Netherlands In the Wetboek van Strafrecht there is an Article b  that considers stalking as a crime, actually an Antragsdelikt: He, who unlawfully systematically and deliberately intrudes someones personal environment with the intention to enforce the other to do something, not to do something or to tolerate something or to frighten, will be punished because of stalking.
Maximum imprisonment is three years or a fine of the fourth category. Prosecution will only happen when there is a complaint from him, against whom this crime has been committed Antragsdelikt.
Romania Article of the Criminal Code states: The act of someone who repeatedly follows, without right or a legitimate interest, a person or his or her home, workplace or other place frequented, thus causing a state of fear. Making phone calls or communication by means of transmission, which by frequent or continuous use, causes fear to a person.
Stalking in the age of social media
This shall be punished with imprisonment from one to three months or a fine if the case is not a more serious offense. Criminal action is initiated by prior complaint of the victim.
United Kingdom Already before the enactment of the Protection from Harassment Actthe Malicious Communications Act and the Telecommunications Act now the Communications Act criminalised indecent, offensive or threatening phone calls and the sending of an indecent, offensive or threatening letter, electronic communication or other article to another person.
Before no specific offence existed in England and Wales but in Scotland incidents could be dealt with under pre-existing law with life imprisonment available for the worst offences England and Wales In England and Wales" harassment " was criminalised by the enactment of the Protection from Harassment Actwhich came into force on 16 June It makes it a criminal offence, punishable by up to six months' imprisonment, to make a course of conduct which amounts to harassment of another on two or more occasions.
The court can also issue a restraining order, which carries a maximum punishment of five years' imprisonment if breached. In England and Walesliability may arise in the event that the victim suffers either mental or physical harm as a result of being harassed or slang term stalked see R.
Inthe Prime Minister, David Cameronstated that the government intended to make another attempt to create a law aimed specifically at stalking behaviour. The act of stalking under this section is exemplified by contacting, or attempting to contact, a person by any means, publishing any statement or other material relating or purporting to relate to a person, monitoring the use by a person of the internet, email or any other form of electronic communication, loitering in any place whether public or privateinterfering with any property in the possession of a person or watching or spying on a person.
This created the offence of where a person's conduct amounts to stalking and either causes another to fear on at least two occasions that violence will be used against them or conduct that causes another person serious alarm or distress which has a substantial effect on their usual day to day activities. Scotland In Scotlandbehaviour commonly described as stalking was already prosecuted as the Common Law offence of breach of the peace not to be confused with the minor English offence of the same description before the introduction of the statutory offence against s.
Provision is made under the Protection from Harassment Act against stalking to deal with the civil offence i. Victims of stalking may sue for interdict against an alleged stalker, or a non-harassment order, breach of which is an offence. Congressman Ed Royce introduced the law in Within three years  thereafter, every state in the United States followed suit to create the crime of stalking, under different names such as criminal harassment or criminal menace.
The Driver's Privacy Protection Act DPPA was enacted in in response to numerous cases of a driver's information being abused for criminal activity, with prominent examples including the Saldana and Schaeffer stalking cases. It is particularly restrictive, by the standards of this type of legislation. Robert De Niro has notably played a stalker in at least four films. In the film Cape FearRobert Mitchum plays vengeful ex-convict Max Cady, who stalks and terrorizes his former lawyer Gregory Peckwhom he blames for his imprisonment, and the lawyer's family.
Stalkers appear in the Strugatsky brothers ' novel Roadside Picnic, on which the movie is loosely based.
Cyber-stalking: When looking at other people online becomes a problem
Victims may be afraid to report their stalker out of fear of retaliation or be unsure where the dividing line falls between innocent behavior and obsessive, potentially dangerous tendencies.
How do you define stalking? Between whom strangers, friends, romantic partners, etc. We define stalking as unwanted or obsessive behavior toward an individual intended to frighten or coerce. We often speak of stalking in a heteronormative framework, with the man stalking the woman, but it can certainly happen the other way around.
And it can happen in gay, lesbian and transgender relationships as well. Stalking can happen as part of the cycle of intimate partner violence, serving as another way to control a victim and establish dominance over that person. But it can occur in platonic relationships, too. But in the context of obsessive or repetitive behavior, those actions definitely qualify.