talking of SENSE=dealing with relationships inside language p. g g talking of REFERENCE=dealing with l ti hi b t. l d th ld relationships between l. and the world. Two expressions that entail each other have the same reference. b. If we have Moreover, verbs like believe is a relation between an individual expressed by. meaning of words and exp. talking of SENSE=dealing with relationships inside language. talking of REFERENCE=dealing with relationships between l. and.
John McDowell supplies cognitive and reference-determining roles. Sense and description[ edit ] In his theory of descriptionsBertrand Russell held the view that most proper names in ordinary language are in fact disguised definite descriptions.
For example, 'Aristotle' can be understood as "The pupil of Plato and teacher of Alexander," or by some other uniquely applying description. This is known as the descriptivist theory of names.
Sense and reference - Wikipedia
Because Frege used definite descriptions in many of his examples, he is often taken to have endorsed the descriptivist theory. Thus Russell's theory of descriptions was conflated with Frege's theory of sense, and for most of the twentieth century this 'Frege-Russell' view was the orthodox view of proper name semantics. However, Saul Kripke argued compellingly against the descriptivist theory. According to Kripke,  proper names are rigid designators which designate the same object in every possible world.
Descriptions such as 'the President of the U.
For example, someone other than Richard Nixone. Hubert Humphreymight have been the President in Hence a description or cluster of descriptions cannot be a rigid designator, and thus a proper name cannot mean the same as a description.
Evans further developed this line, arguing that a sense without a referent was not possible. He and McDowell both take the line that Frege's discussion of empty names, and of the idea of sense without reference, are inconsistent, and that his apparent endorsement of descriptivism rests only on a small number of imprecise and perhaps offhand remarks.
And both point to the power that the sense-reference distinction does have i. Translation of Bedeutung[ edit ] As noted above, translators of Frege have rendered the German Bedeutung in various ways.
Sense And Reference In Semantics?
The second is perceptual: We will take the latter approach. Reference also includes imaginary objects: This would also include objects which currently do not exist but could exist: Sense Sense is the more interesting part meaning. Sense refers to how we see an object or the amount of information given about an object.
The classic example cited showing the distinction is the planet Venus. As a planet it has reference arbitrarily given the name Venus. It is often called the morning star when seen in the morning, and the everning star when seen in the evening. Thus, it has two senses, depending on the time of day the object is seen.
The planet itself is the referent, the morning star is one sense, the evening star the other sense. It could have other senses.
Sense and reference
In another example suppose John has two sons, Bill and Henry; one nephew, Pete; and one grandson, Dave. When we refer to John as such, there is no sense. John is the arbitrary name given to the referent. Consider the folwing phrases: Bill's father Pete's uncle Dave's grandfather.
Each phrase either refers to John X's fatheror it may refer to John: Pete may have more thn one uncle and Dave has a second grandfather. In these cases the addressee does not know which of the possible referents is the intended referent except when clear from the context.
The four phrases listed above represent a different sense of the intended referent. Virtually every object can have several senses. They have little or no sense. Lexical nouns each denote a sense.
The term father refer to anyone who is a male parent antoher sense. As a rule all dictionary definitions define sense, not reference. Only names in a dictionary reference and no sense. Technically, this is not a definition.