Islamic Mathematics - The Story of Mathematics
oday, I'm going to talk about the historical links between Islam and mathematics. And I'll show you that. during the Middle Ages, Islam was actually a powerful. MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews. Richard Covington, Rediscovering Arabic Science, The Mathematical Legacy of Islam. Today, mention of the word Islam conjurs up images of fanatical terrorists flying jet airplanes full of people into buildings full of .
An Arab prince and governor of Syria, he is considered to be the greatest Muslim astronomer and mathematician.Muslim Contributions to Mathematics, Science, Technology and Medicine - By Abdullah Hakim Quick
Al-Battani raised trigonometry to higher levels and computed the first table of cotangents. He was a philosopher, geographer, astronomer, physicist and mathematician.
Six hundred years before Galileo, Al-Biruni discussed the theory of the earth rotating about its own axis. Al-Biruni carried out geodesic measurements and determined the earth's circumference in a most ingenious way.
With the aid of mathematics, he enabled the direction of the Qibla to be determined from anywhere in the world. In the domain of trigonometry, the theory of the functions; sine, cosine, and tangent was developed by Muslim scholars of the tenth century.
Muslim scholars worked diligently in the development of plane and spherical trigonometry. The, trigonometry of Muslims is based on Ptolemy's theorem but is superior in two important respects: Lecture notes in Computer Science, Vol. His main message was one of monotheism, though the Qur'an provided guidelines for worship of God in all areas of life.
Mathematics in medieval Islam
Islam is the completion of Christianity and Judaism, and Muhammad is the final and universal Prophet sent by God to all peoples the Seal of the Prophets. Mecca, Muhammad's home town where he began preaching Islam, had an economy greatly based on the pilgrims who visited the Kaba, which held hundreds of statues of local gods and goddesses. His message of monotheism, then, was seen as dangerous to the economy. Muhammad and his followers were forced to flee to Medina, who had offered him a job as a city mediator.
Muslim Founders of Mathematics | Muslim Heritage
This flight is called the hijra. In Medina, Muhammad set up an Islamic city, where laws conformed to the regulations set forth in the Qu'ran. He and his followers also conquered Mecca a few years after the hijra; the capture of Mecca was a blood-less battle, though both Meccans and Medinians suffered heavy losses in battles before this final capture.
Shortly after returning to Mecca, Muhammad passed away.
He had not designated anyone to succeed him, which resulted in crisis and opposition political camps. The Abbasid Caliphate The Abbasid empire focused on an international identity. The capital was moved to Baghdad, which became the center for learning in the Muslim empire.
Scholars from Syria, Iran, and Mesopotamia were brought to Baghdad in the late 8th century, which included Jewish and Christian scholars.
The Caliph al-Mansur r. It was in CE that the Sinhind, the first mathematical treatise from India, was brought to Baghdad.
Muslim Founders of Mathematics
This work is called the Sinhind in Arabic, but may refer to the Brahmasphuta Siddhanta, which was influential in the development of Algebra. This text was translated in CE. Mathematics in the 10th century Islamic scientists in the 10th century were involved in three major mathematical projects: The first of these projects led to the appearance of three complete numeration systems, one of which was the finger arithmetic used by the scribes and treasury officials.
This ancient arithmetic system, which became known throughout the East and Europe, employed mental arithmetic and a system of storing intermediate results on the fingers as an aid to memory. Its use of unit fractions recalls the Egyptian system. A second common system was the base numeration inherited from the Babylonians via the Greeks and known as the arithmetic of the astronomers. Although astronomers used this system for their tables, they usually converted numbers to the decimal system for complicated calculations and then converted the answer back to sexagesimals.
The third system was Indian arithmetic, whose basic numeral forms, complete with the zero, eastern Islam took over from the Hindus. Different forms of the numerals, whose origins are not entirely clear, were used in western Islam. Also, the arithmetic algorithms were completed in two ways: Several algebraists explicitly stressed the analogy between the rules for working with powers of the unknown in algebra and those for working with powers of 10 in arithmetic, and there was interaction between the development of arithmetic and algebra from the 10th to the 12th century.
Although none of this employed symbolic algebra, algebraic symbolism was in use by the 14th century in the western part of the Islamic world.
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Other parts of algebra developed as well. However, not only arithmetic and algebra but geometry too underwent extensive development.
Ibn al-Haytham, for example, used this method to find the point on a convex spherical mirror at which a given object is seen by a given observer. Not only did he discover a general method of extracting roots of arbitrary high degree, but his Algebra contains the first complete treatment of the solution of cubic equations.
Omar did this by means of conic sections, but he declared his hope that his successors would succeed where he had failed in finding an algebraic formula for the roots. To this tradition Omar contributed the idea of a quadrilateral with two congruent sides perpendicular to the baseas shown in the figure. The parallel postulate would be proved, Omar recognized, if he could show that the remaining two angles were right angles.
In this he failed, but his question about the quadrilateral became the standard way of discussing the parallel postulate. Quadrilateral of Omar KhayyamOmar Khayyam constructed the quadrilateral shown in the figure in an effort to prove that Euclid's fifth postulate, concerning parallel lines, is superfluous.
Mathematics in medieval Islam - Wikipedia
Omar recognized that if he could prove that the internal angles at the top of the quadrilateral, formed by connecting C and D, are right angles, then he would have proved that DC is parallel to AB.
Although Omar showed that the internal angles at the top are equal as shown by the proof demonstrated in the figurehe could not prove that they are right angles. That postulate, however, was only one of the questions on the foundations of mathematics that interested Islamic scientists.
Another was the definition of ratios. The important step here was less the general idea than the development of the numerical algorithms necessary to effect it. The astrolabe, whose mathematical theory is based on the stereographic projection of the spherewas invented in late antiquity, but its extensive development in Islam made it the pocket watch of the medievals. In its original form it required a different plate of horizon coordinates for each latitude, but in the 11th century the Spanish Muslim astronomer al-Zarqallu invented a single plate that worked for all latitudes.