How did the Industrial Revolution lead to Imperialism? | wagtailfarm.info
Aug 31, Global Impact of Industrialization. ▷ Emergence of new political and economic ideologies. ▷ Business leaders encouraged gap between rich. The industrialized economies of these countries needed raw materials and imperialism was seen as a way to get those materials. Second, they felt they needed. Dec 18, There's Correlation and Coincidence rather than any Connection. The intersections between the Industrial Revolution and Imperialism happened at the Now, if you were an empire in the age of industrialization with a high growth rate and.
Contact Author Introduction Throughout 19th-century Europe, political and economic forces helped to dramatically alter the European continent in a manner that forever changed the countries and people that inhabited them. In less than a century, the absolutist ideals of the Old Regime started to wither away as revolutionary ideals of freedom and democracy attempted to take hold across Europe. Industrialization, with its powerful economic connections, greatly fueled these revolutions through the development of both social strife and inequality.
Moreover, nationalist sentiment and imperialism directly contributed to these changes through their promotion of racism and competition between the powerful nation-states that emerged. As this article seeks to demonstrate, however, revolution, industrialization, and imperialism did not always follow a consistent or steady pattern.
Rather, they differed quite significantly depending upon the country and people involved during their progression. As a result, Europeans experienced uneven and sporadic waves of change across the long nineteenth-century. What accounts for these discrepancies? More specifically, what factors contributed to the differences that each country experienced in regard to revolution, industrialization, and imperialism during this era?
Generally speaking, it involves a fundamental shift or change within society that alters the social, political, or economic ideals of a country and its people. Basic elements of the society often remain in the aftermath of revolutions.
The goals, ideals, and beliefs of the people, however, are often forever changed through the revolutionary process. This is precisely the situation that unraveled within Europe during the nineteenth-century and the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.
While basic tenets of European society and culture remained intact, the liberal ideas unleashed by the French Revolution, nevertheless, served to greatly challenge the established monarchies and aristocracies of Europe.
In their aftermath, these challenges to authority set the stage for future governments more responsible to their people, rather than governments that relied solely on absolute rule. Moreover, the revolutions of nineteenth-century Europe ushered in democratic virtues of liberty and equality that later evolved into the current models of governance in existence today. With this basic understanding of revolutions and their impact on nineteenth-century Europe, several important questions arise.
What accounted for these revolutionary uprisings? Specifically, what factors led to their overall development and progression? Why did differences in the experiences of revolution exist among the countries of Europe? More specifically, why did certain regions of Europe experience change more rapidly than other parts? The revolutions across Europe directly resulted from the radical views of the French that first emerged during the French Revolution.
In an attempt to dismantle the ideas embraced by the Old Regime, French revolutionaries inspired by the American Revolution only a few years prior attacked the social and political ideals of their time in favor of measures that ostensibly favored universal equality and liberty for all. This aspect is important to consider, as it helps explain the inconsistencies between Eastern and Western Europe in regard to the revolutions each country experienced. Western powers with a closer proximity to France, experienced revolution far sooner than the countries of Eastern Europe since their populations existed within the boundaries of French influence.
This influence was further enhanced once Napoleon gained control over Italy, the German states, and portions of Austria-Hungary through his conquests. As part of his rule, Napoleon implemented tremendous changes within these countries, both economically and politically. Because the imperial structure set up by Napoleon destroyed the social and political elements of the Old Regime across Western Europe, Napoleon set the stage for future revolutionary developments within these countries that progressed more rapidly than in places such as Russia.
Nationalism, which reflected ideas of extreme patriotism and pride, played a tremendous role in developing the revolutionary changes that occurred across Europe. Nationalism provided individuals with an identity, and a connection with people of similar cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
This is important to consider, since these sentiments did not vanish over time. This case is greatly illustrated by the German states during the middle years of the nineteenth-century.
For these reasons, Western Europe experienced upheavals of their political and social systems far sooner than the countries of the East. These disruptions and encouragement of nationalist sentiment, consequently, aided in the development of revolutionary thoughts long before such ideas emerged in the East.
The West in the Age of Industrialization and Imperialism
Distance, in this sense, greatly explains the revolutionary incongruities that existed throughout Europe during the nineteenth-century. Eastern countries remained far removed from the dissent fomenting in the West.
Moreover, distance gave the Eastern rulers ample time to implement measures capable of stifling and muting future dissenters, thus, preventing revolutionary reactions within their own countries. Not surprisingly, such tactics and actions helped to greatly delay radical Western ideas from permeating the Russian empire.
Similar to his conquests in the West, Napoleon inadvertently introduced concepts of the French Revolution to the vast forces he encountered. Not only does it demonstrate why an unevenness of revolutions existed within Europe, but it also explains the root causes of nationalism and why nationalist sentiment spread beyond the French boundaries to impact European societies at large.
The revolutionary and nationalist sentiments introduced by Napoleon, in turn, aided in the disruption of the balance of power across Europe, and directly resulted in the tense military and political atmosphere that emerged following the Congress of Vienna in Political and institutional changes, however, are not the only revolutions that took place across Europe. Industrialization, to a large degree, brought economic change to Europe on a scale never before seen.
Just as the political revolutions of Europe varied from country to country, so too did the forces of industrialization that favored particular social, economic, and political environments over others. But what factors contributed to its impact?
This growth in population was important since it assisted in the development of cities and provided a consumer market to meet the large-scale production capabilities of industry. Revolutions in transportation and technology, such as the railroad and steamboat, further aided the development of industrialization since they provided a means for consumer goods to be shipped in mass quantities quickly and cost-effectively, across long distances.
Similar to the political revolutions taking place across Europe, industrialization varied greatly across the European continent. In Great Britain, for instance, the effects of industrialization were, perhaps, most recognizable since the British Empire fostered an atmosphere conducive to industry and its effects.
With an empire that stretched the globe, Britain possessed a large and diverse population, as well as a vast consumer market that helped stimulate the production of mass quantities of goods. According to historian, Anna Clark, however, the Industrial Revolution also created as many problems as it solved in Great Britain.
This is particularly true if the social impact of the revolution is taken into account. While the Industrial Revolution provided many individuals with jobs and an abundance of goods, Clark asserts that it also served to create social strife and gender inequality, and greatly expanded the divide between social classes Clark, Problems such as these greatly helped fuel the social and political revolutions taking place across Britain, and eventually Europe, at large.
Rural families moved to cities or coal-mining towns, where parents and children, some as young as five years old, went to work in tile factories or mines.
Even with whole families working, few avoided poverty, crowded housing, and poor health. Eventually, the British government abandoned its commitment to unlimited free enterprise, and Parliament passed laws to protect factory workers and miners, especially children, from exploitation. When considering legislation, parliamentary committees held hearings to gather testimony from workers, employers, physicians, clergy, and local officials.
Their statements present a vivid picture of working-class conditions in the first half of the nineteenth century. Section 1 is testimony from the records of the Sadler Committee, chaired by Michael Thomas Sadler in and charged with investigating conditions of child labor in cotton and linen factories; section 2 is testimony taken by a parliamentary commission appointed in to investigate working conditions in other textile industries; section 3 presents evidence taken by the committee chaired by Lord Ashley in to investigate conditions in coal mines.
- Imperialism, Revolution, and Industrialization in 19th-Century Europe
- Industrialization and imperialism
How young were children when they first began working in the textile factories, and how many hours did they work? What differences were there between working conditions in the mines and in the cotton factories? As revealed by the questions they asked, what did the committee members consider the worst abuses of working conditions in the factories and mines? What does the testimony of Hannah Richardson and George Armitage reveal about a the economic circumstances of working class families, and b attitudes of working class families toward their children?
Consider the testimony of the workers themselves. Do the workers express anger? Do they demand changes? What do the workers' answers reveal about the reasons for the weakness of the working-class movement in England in the first half of the nineteenth century?
Injury rates among factory workers were high. What in the testimony explains this phenomenon? Many English commentators observed that most factory workers were making immense wages in comparison to what they had earned in the countryside.
Yet the testimony in the parliamentary hearings paints a picture of worker poverty. What might explain this contradiction?
How did the Industrial Revolution lead to Imperialism?
For what reasons do William Harter and Thomas Wilson oppose factory laws? In what ways do their views reflect the economic philosophy of Adam Smith in the Wealth of Nations Chapter 5, source 38? Testimony before the Sadler Committee. What time did You begin to work at a factory -- When I was six years old. What kind of mill is It.
What was your business in that mill, -- I was a little doffer. What were your hours of labor in that mill? What were your usual hours of labor when you were not so thronged? What time was allowed for your meals? Had you any time to get your breakfast or drinking? And when your work was bad, you had hardly any time to eat it at all?
Do you consider doffing a laborious employment, -- Yes. Explain what it is you had to do- -- When the frames are full, they have to stop the frames, and take the flyers off, and take the full bobbins off, and carry them to the roller; and then put empty ones on, and set the frames on again. Does that keep you constantly on your feet? Your labor is very excessive?
Suppose you flagged a little, or were too late, what would they do, -- Strap us. Are they in the habit of strapping those who are last in doffing? Girls as well as boys? Have you ever been strapped? Could you eat your food well in that factory? Did you live far from the mill? Had you a clock. Supposing you had not been in time enough in the morning at the mills, what would have been the consequence? What do you mean by that?
Were you generally there in time? What is the temperature of silk-mills? Is any artificial heat required?
Europe: Industrialization and Imperialism
Why, then, are those employed in them said to be in such a wretched condition? In the second place the privy is in the factory, which frequently emits an unwholesome smell; and it would be worthwhile to notice in the future erection of mills, that there be betwixt the privy door and the factory wall a kind of a lobby of cage-work. What are the effects of the present system of labor?
The degradation of the workpeople baffles all description: Every machine is valuable in proportion to the quantity of work which it will turn off in a given time. It is impossible that the machinery could produce as much work in ten hours as in twelve. If the tending of the machines were a laborious occupation, the difference in the quantity of work might not always be in exact proportion to the difference of working time; but in my mill, and silk-mills in general, the work requires the least imaginable labor; therefore it is perfectly impossible that could produce as much work in ten hours as in twelve.
The produce would vary in about the same ratio as the working time. What may be said about the sum invested in your mill and machinery? Then to what extent do you consider your property would be prejudiced by a bill limiting the working hours to ten? How would the reduction in the hours of labor affect the cost of your manufactures? Now the mere interest of the investment in buildings and machinery, and the expense of keeping the same in repair, forms a large item In the cost of manufacturing.
Do you mean to say, that to produce the same quantity of work which your present mill and machinery is capable of, it requires an additional outlay of upwards of 3, pounds?
Testimony before the Ashley Committee on the Conditions in Mines. We have about bound people contract laborersand in addition our bank people foremenmen and boys about In the pits men and boys; of these, men.
Of the children in the pits we have none under eight, and only three so young. We are constantly beset by parents coming making application to take children under the age, and they are very anxious and very dissatisfied if we do not take the children; and there have been cases in times of brisk trade, when the parents have threatened to leave the cottlery, and go elsewhere If we did not comply.
At every successive binding, which takes place yearly, constant attempts are made to get the boys engaged to work to which they are not competent from their years.
In point of fact, we would rather not have boys until nine years of age complete. If younger than that, they are apt to fail asleep and get hurt; some get killed. It is no interest to the company to take any boys under nine. He is down from 6 to 8. He likes it pretty well, for he'd rather be in the pit than to go to school. There is not much difference in his health since he went into the pit. He was at school before, and can read pretty well, but can't write. He is used pretty well; I never hear him complain.
I've another son in the pit, 17 years old. He went into the pit at eight years old. It's not hurt his health nor his appetite, for he's a good size. It would hurt us of children were prevented from working till 11 or 12 years old, because we've not jobs enough to live now as it is.
I hardly know how to reprobate the practice sufficiently girls working in pits; nothing can be worse. I have no doubt that debauchery is carried on, for which there is every opportunity; for the girls go constantly, when hurrying, to the men, who work often alone in the bank-faces apart from every one. I think it scarcely possible for girls to remain modest who are in pits, regularly mixing with such company and hearing and such language as they do - it is next to impossible.
I dare venture to say that many of the wives who come from pits know nothing of sewing or any household duty, such as women ought to know - they lose all disposition to learn such things; they are rendered unfit for learning them also by being overworked and not being trained to the habit of it.