Relationship between india and pakistan pdf

relationship between india and pakistan pdf

Indian Policy on Pakistan is as follows: a) Issues can be resolved through cooperative relations between the two countries. As a gesture of. In April , during the meeting between Prime Minister and then Pak LOC with the involvement of Pak army, India called upon Pakistan to. India-Pakistan Relations: challenges and Opportunities relations between the two countries have been in the state of constant flux. .. pdf. [6]. Manoharan N. India-Pakistan () Composite Dialogue a status Report.

The decision, however, cost New Delhi dearly. Maulana, who is believed to be hiding in Karachilater became the leader of Jaish-e-Mohammedan organisation which has carried out several terrorist acts against Indian security forces in Kashmir. The Fort houses an Indian military unit and a high-security interrogation cell used both by the Central Bureau of Investigation and the Indian Army.

The terrorists successfully breached the security cover around the Red Fort and opened fire at the Indian military personnel on duty killing two of them on spot.

The attack was significant because it was carried out just two days after the declaration of the cease-fire between India and Pakistan.

relationship between india and pakistan pdf

The attack was carried out on 25 Septemberjust few days after state elections were held in Jammu and Kashmir. Two identical letters found on both the terrorists claimed that the attack was done in retaliation for the deaths of thousands of Muslims during the Gujarat riots. Though no terrorist group claimed responsibility for the attacks, Mumbai Police and RAW suspected Lashkar-e-Toiba 's hand in the twin blasts.

Before the terrorists could reach the main disputed sitethey were shot down by Indian security forces. One Hindu worshipper and two policemen were injured during the incident. This was the first major military standoff between India and Pakistan since the Kargil War in The military buildup was initiated by India responding to a Indian Parliament attack and the Jammu and Kashmir legislative assembly attack.

relationship between india and pakistan pdf

At least 68 people were killed, mostly Pakistani civilians but also some Indian security personnel and civilians. The sole surviving gunman Ajmal Kasab who was arrested during the attacks was found to be a Pakistani national. This fact was acknowledged by Pakistani authorities. Islamabad resisted the claims and demanded evidence. India provided evidence in the form of interrogations, weapons, candy wrappers, Pakistani Brand Milk Packets, and telephone sets.

They also said that, given the sophistication of the attacks, the perpetrators "must have had the support of some official agencies in Pakistan".

  • India–Pakistan relations

India and weapons of mass destructionPakistan and weapons of mass destructionand nuclear race India has a long history of development of nuclear weapons. InIndia's nuclear program was aimed at the development of nuclear weapons, with Indira Gandhi carefully overseeing the development of weapons.

Starting preparations for a nuclear test inIndia finally exploded its first nuclear bomb in Pokhran test range, codename Smiling Buddhain No official announcements of such cold tests were made by Pakistan government. Ina mutual understanding was reached between the two countries in which each pledged not to attack nuclear facilities.

Agreements on cultural exchanges and civil aviation were also initiated, also in Pokhran-II which invited Pakistan to follow the latter's step and performed its own atomic tests see: Talks and other confidence building measures After the war, Pakistan and India made slow progress towards the normalisation of relations.

They signed the Simla Agreementby which India would return all Pakistani personnel over 90, and captured territory in the west, and the two countries would "settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations.

The Prime Ministers of Pakistan and India met twice and the foreign secretaries conducted three rounds of talks. In Junethe foreign secretaries identified eight "outstanding issues" around which continuing talks would be focused. The conflict over the status of Kashmir, referred by India as Jammu and Kashmiran issue since Independence, remains the major stumbling block in their dialogue.

It however refuses to abide by the previous part of the resolution, which calls for it to vacate all territories occupied. In Septemberthe talks broke down over the structure of how to deal with the issues of Kashmir, and peace and security. Pakistan advocated that the issues be treated by separate working groups.

India responded that the two issues be taken up along with six others on a simultaneous basis. Attempts to restart dialogue between the two nations were given a major boost by the February meeting of both Prime Ministers in Lahore and their signing of three agreements.

relationship between india and pakistan pdf

A subsequent military coup in Pakistan that overturned the democratically elected Nawaz Sharif government in October of the same year also proved a setback to relations.

The talks fell through. On 20 Junewith a new government in place in India, both countries agreed to extend a nuclear testing ban and to set up a hotline between their foreign secretaries aimed at preventing misunderstandings that might lead to a nuclear war.

relationship between india and pakistan pdf

Manmohan Singh become prime minister of India in Maythe Punjab provincial Government declared it would develop Gahhis place of birth, as a model village in his honour and name a school after him. There are two main reasons for this: Moreover, coming under intense international pressure, Islamabad was compelled to take actions against the militants' training camps on its territory.

Inthe two countries also agreed upon decreasing the number of troops present in the region. Under pressure, Kashmiri militant organisations made an offer for talks and negotiations with New Delhi, which India welcomed. India's Border Security Force blamed the Pakistani military for providing cover-fire for the terrorists whenever they infiltrated into Indian territory from Pakistan.

relationship between india and pakistan pdf

Pakistan in turn has also blamed India for providing support to terrorist organisations operating in Pakistan such as the BLA. InPakistan's information minister, Sheikh Rashid, was alleged to have run a terrorist training camp in in N. The Pakistani government dismissed the charges against its minister as an attempt to hamper the ongoing peace process between the two neighbours.

Both India and Pakistan have launched several mutual confidence-building measures CBMs to ease tensions between the two.

India-Pakistan Relations

These include more high-level talks, easing visa restrictions, and restarting of cricket matches between the two. The new bus service between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad has also helped bring the two sides closer. Pakistan and India have also decided to co-operate on economic fronts. Some improvements in the relations are seen with the re-opening of a series of transportation networks near the India—Pakistan border, with the most important being bus routes and railway lines. A major clash between Indian security forces and militants occurred when a group of insurgents tried to infiltrate into Kashmir from Pakistan in July The same month also saw a Kashmiri militant attack on Ayodhya and Srinagar.

However, these developments had little impact on the peace process. An Indian man held in Pakistani prisons since as an accused spy walked across the border to freedom 3 Marchan unconditional release that Pakistan said was done to improve relations between the two countries. The idea was that Indian and Pakistani children would make pen pals and write friendly letters to each other. The idea was so successful in both countries that the organisation found it "impossible to keep up".

A British newspaper, The Guardianwhich had the Wikileaks cables in its possession reviewed the cables and concluded that the Pakistani claims were "not accurate" and that "WikiLeaks [was] being exploited for propaganda purposes. Following the election, the region saw an increase in jihadist groups. For example, a number of Pakistani based organizations began using violence and terrorism to move the Hindu population out of the Indian Kasmir valley.

This led to a military response by the Indian government. All the while, Indian and Pakistani military forces were frequently shooting at one another The Telegraph, India has longed believed that the Pakistani military has encouraged the activity of these groups.

Others wonder whether the Pakistani government has any influence over these actors. It has been argued that India at this time had no longer been as willing to work through the United Nations compared to The Telegraph, It was also in the late s that both India and Pakistan were building up their nuclear weapons programs, not only testing bombs infor examplebut also ensuring that they had missiles capable of carrying the nuclear warheads.

It was also during early August of that the two sides escalated their fighting with one another, Then, arguably one of the closest periods of a large-scale conflict in the history of India-Pakistan relations came in in the Kargil area of Kashmir.

According to reports, When India began patrolling the Kargil heights that summer, it found to its horror that many key posts vacated in the winter were occupied by infiltrators.

A patrol was ambushed in the first week of May Pakistan insisted that those involved were freedom fighters from Kashmir and that it was giving only moral support. Bruce Reidel, Special Assistant to President Clinton, writes that he was present in person when Clinton informed Nawaz Sharif that the Pakistan Army had mobilized its nuclear-tipped missile fleet. The fighting between these two states continued until August of that year.

India–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia

This conflict was even more worrying given the nuclear power of each state The Telegraph, For Pakistan, even though many did not view them on the side of victory during this conflict, for the military, it was a success. As mentioned, the different countries have been at odds over control of Kashmir. Following a relatively long period in which the region saw little fighting, it seems that since the summer ofthere has been a rising in tense Indian-Pakistani relations over the region.

The death, praised by Indian military officials, was followed by mass protests, and attacks on government and police locations by Kashmiris. The violence between India and Pakistan further escalated in September and October of at some of the highest levels in decades. On September 18th,it was reported that an army base was attacked by militants, and during this attack, 18 Indian soldiers were killed.

Indian officials spoke out against the attack, calling out Pakistan. One official, seemed to allude to a Pakistani connection to the militants. Then, in response to this attack in the Indian controlled part of Kashmir, India carried out strikes in Kashmir after they said that terror groups were preparing using Kashmir to prepare for attacks in India. The Pakistani military has also said that India is unable to carry out such an attack.

Indian-Pakistan tensions continued to rise in October of when the fighting in Kashmir continued. There are worries by India that Pakistan will be aiding terrorists to go into India and carry out strikes Shrivastava, These concerns have left Pakistan upset, since it implies that they are willing to support terror activity against India.

Pakistan has not remained silent on the developments in Kashmir. Kashmir continues to see rising hostilities as civilians protested the killing of a young boy in the region. The Indian government claimed that the boy was involved in the protests, whereas those living in the area said that he was inside his place of residence, and was hit Hussain, India-Pakistan Relations and Nuclear Weapons Given the conflict over Kashmir, there are always concerns that a war between these two states could escalate because of nuclear weapons.

Historically, there have been questions as to whether either side would actually be willing to use such powerful and dangerous weapons, knowing the implications of such an act. However, there is at least some evidence to suggest that the worsening India-Pakistani relations over Kashmir have led leaders to at least consider the possibility of a nuclear attack.

On December 13th,five Pakistani gunmen began an attack on the Indian parliament building in the city of New Delhi. A total of 14 people were killed with five of them being the gunmen. India said that the group Lashkar-e-Taiba, an organization based out of Kashmir, was responsible for the attack.

India also said that the group was backed by Pakistan. What happened next left many fearing for the worst: India brought abouttroops to the border. In addition, they also had prepared their nuclear missiles. Other comments were equally, if not even more alarming. There was serious belief by world leaders that India was going to enter a war with Pakistan following this attack. According to US National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice at the time, she worked to reduce hostilities, which she believes helped to somewhat calm a high tense time.

IR: India-Pakistan/Indo-Pak Relations {UPSC CSE/IAS, SSC CGL/CHSL, Bank (IBPS/SBI)}

It is believed that Indian military officials had some go-ahead to strike carry out a strike against Pakistan Hindustan Times, ND. However, India recognized that little value would come from a war with Pakistan. There was too many positive developments happening in the country of India to jeopardize with a war that might not even lead to any positive political outcome NPR, Scholars argue that part of the reason for the escalation in rhetoric, and the possibility of a nuclear war between these two countries is not only that Pakistan has attempted to do more following the establishment of the nuclear weapons, but also that India has generally not taken Pakistani nuclear threats very seriously.

Furthermore, leaders in the government have iterated their lack of concern by Pakistan nuclear weapons comments, which only further suggests a lack of seriousness towards the issue.