Apr 13, There may be no direct connection between gum disease and cardiovascular disease; the reason they may occur together is that there is a 3rd. Jun 16, What research says about oral hygiene links to cardiac health. systemic inflammation, but there's no specific relation to oral inflammation, she says. For example, the link between smoking and heart disease is well known. Many epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between periodontal disease (PD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but their results are .
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Many epidemiological studies have investigated the relationship between periodontal disease PD and cardiovascular disease CVDbut their results are heterogeneous.
This review article is designed to update the potential association, that forms the basis of understanding for a causal role for PD to cardiovascular events; as reported by various observational case-control, cohort, cross-sectional studies, epidemiological and interventional studies, not considering the other number of systemic health outcomes like cerebrovascular disease, pregnancy complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus complications, osteoporosis, etc.
A brief overview has been included for atherosclerosis ATHits pathophysiology and the association of periodontal infections as a risk factor for causing ATH, which seems to be a rational one; as development of ATH involves a chronic low-grade inflammation and moreover, it has long been set up prior to development of ischemic heart disease and thus provides potential contributing mechanisms that ATH may contribute singly or in concert with other risk factors to develop ischemic heart disease.
This article goes on to discuss the correlation of evidence that is gathered from many scientific studies showing either strong, modest, weak or even no links along with their critical analyses. Finally, this article summarizes the present status of the links that possibly exist between PD and its role as a risk factor in triggering cardiovascular events, in the fairly long journey for the last two decades.
Since PD is common in population, it may account for significant portion of proposed infection-associated risk for CVD. Since this population group is increasing in number and since more elderly individuals are dentate than in the past, there is also an increased incidence of PD in this patient group. This evidence coupled with recent evidence of linking PD to coronary heart disease suggest the need to evaluate the extent to which the strength of this association has been established through several scientific studies in the last two decades.
The term is derived from the Greek words for hardening sclerosis and gruel or the accumulation of lipid athere. Atherosclerosis lesions begin with deposition of lipoproteins in the intimal layer of the affected artery.
Does Gum Disease Increase Risk of Heart Disease?
The lipoprotein particles such as low-density lipoproteins LDLs then seem to permit the accumulation of monocytes and lymphocytes in the intimal layer. This adherence is mediated through several adhesion molecules on the endothelial cell surface, including intercellular adhesion molecule 1 ICAM-1endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule 1 ELAM-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 VCAM Modified LDL can be a major cause of injury to both endothelium and underlying smooth muscles.
These lipid containing area calcify to varying degrees. At the same time, smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall are stimulated to migrate in the intimal layer, where they can proliferate.
Heart Disease and Gum Disease
A fibrous cap that faces the interior of the artery eventually covers the atherosclerotic lesion. Activated T-cells may stimulate metalloproteinase production by macrophages; which remodel the fibrotic plaque. Through remodeling of the extracellular matrix, the fibrous cap may become thin and rupture leading to activation of clotting system with thrombosis and subsequent occlusion of the artery that may be responsible for as many as one half of the cases of myocardial infarction.
Recently, evidence has shown that certain common oral infections play a significant role in ATH[ 9 ] Atherosclerosis can occur in large and medium size elastic and muscular arteries. They can lead to ischemic lesions of brain, heart or extremities and can result in thrombosis and infarction of affected vessels, leading to death. Ross who proposed that the initial lesions result from injury to the endothelium and lead to chronic inflammatory process in the artery. Role of infections in endothelial injury There is accumulating evidence of an association between some common infections of man and ATH.
One possible mechanism is through endothelial injury by infectious agents, triggering in part; an inflammatory response seen in ATH. The role of infections has been recently reviewed by Danesh and colleagues; there is mounting evidence that infection by Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobactor pylori, Periodontal bacteria, and Cytomegalovirus are associated with heart disease.
Those rabbits developed atherosclerotic plaques that were less stable and therefore more likely to cause a heart attack and also had higher blood levels of inflammation than the rabbits that had not been exposed to the gum disease bacteria.
Next, the researchers treated the rabbits with an oral topical liquid that contained resolvins, which are molecules derived from omega-3 fatty acids believed to help quell inflammation. The treatment not only prevented periodontal disease in the infected rabbits, but also lowered inflammation and atherosclerosis.
The findings highlight the potential connection between the two conditions, says Dr. Alpdogan Kantarci, a colleague of Dr. Hasturk's at the Forsyth Institute who was involved in the research.
A study testing a related compound called lipoxin in people with gum disease is currently under way. To date, there's no proof that treating gum disease will prevent cardiovascular disease or its complications.
But the connection is compelling enough that dentists and many doctors say it's yet another reason to be vigilant about preventing gum disease in the first place. Daily toothbrushing and flossing can prevent and even reverse an early stage of gum disease, known as gingivitis. If your dentist says you have gingivitis, ask for a brushing and flossing demonstration to make sure you're doing both correctly, says Dr.
- Gum disease and the connection to heart disease
- Gum disease and heart disease: The common thread
Many people don't spend enough time or care when brushing the recommended duration is two minutes. Flossing sweeps away the sticky film between teeth that leads to plaque buildup.
Gum disease and the connection to heart disease - Harvard Health
A recent study is among the largest to look at this question. Researchers analyzed data from nearly a million people who experienced more than 65, cardiovascular events including heart attack and found that: After accounting for age, there was a moderate correlation between tooth loss a measure of poor oral health and coronary heart disease. When smoking status was considered, the connection between tooth loss and cardiovascular disease largely disappeared This study suggets that the observed connection between poor oral health does not directly cause cardiovascular disease.
But if that's true, how do we explain other studies that found a connection even after accounting for smoking and other cardiovascular risk factors?
Gum disease and heart disease: The common thread - Harvard Health
It's rare that a single study definitively answers a question that has been pondered by researchers for decades. So, we'll probably need additional studies to sort this out.
But wait, there's more! The connection between poor oral health and overall health may not be limited to cardiovascular disease. Studies have linked periodontal disease especially if due to infection with a bacterium called porphyromonas gingivalis and rheumatoid arthritis.