technological connection of economic processes, orientation of scientific . Globalisation, next to the new technologies supplies an enormous growth . demographic evolution indicated the fact that the population of African countries, which. The relationship between migration and the environment is While most of the recent historical and projected population growth in the. We regard these shifts as processes encompassed in globalisation and 6The results indicate a negative relationship between globalisation and conflict, .. 30 Given the high population rates in sub-Saharan African countries, we also control .
However, these indices do not have sufficient data for most sub-Saharan African countries and their time periods are limited Samimi et al. Major episodes of political violence involve at least directly related deaths and reach a level of intensity in which the use of lethal violence by organised groups is systematic and sustained. The variable measures the total summed magnitudes or severity of all societal and interstate violence, which include international, civil, ethnic, communal, and genocidal violence and warfare.
These effects include fatalities, casualties, resource depletion, destruction of infrastructure, and population displacements Marshall, We also separate the conflict variable into intrastate and interstate conflict dummies. Interstate conflict takes place between two or more countries.
Intrastate conflict includes civil and ethnic wars that take place between the government of a country and internal opposition group s without intervention from other countries. The main explanatory variable is a measure of globalisation that we view as representing the historical shifts.
The index globalisation is compiled by Dreher and updated by Dreher et al. It combines three key sub-indices of globalisation social, economic and political into a weighted index ranging from 0 no globalisation to highly globalised. The globalisation index captures the international flows of goods, capital, business people, technology, and information and the presence of international organisations. These different aspects in the index are closely related to the civilising process, pacification process, humanitarian and rights revolutions, and the extended periods of peace proposed by Pinker We view economic globalisation as representing the pacification and civilising processes.
The ever-growing reliance on trade with other countries precipitated the transition from anarchy to state-run societies with increased urbanisation and industrialisation. The civilising process has also increased innovations in technology that have improved productivity, as well as introducing judicial institutions to protect the rights of the people.
Economic globalisation thus promotes international cooperation and discourages countries from engaging in conflict with their trading partners, as the opportunity costs of doing so are high. We view social globalisation as representing the humanitarian and rights revolutions.
Pinker attributes the humanitarian revolution to the age of reason and enlightenment, when literacy spread from the elite to the masses. Countries that also allow multinational firms are more integrated with global markets Flaten and de Soysa, and therefore less likely to engage in conflict. Becoming members of international organisations encourages leaders to interact and come to common understandings; but more than that, the benefits obtained from being a member act as incentives to reduce conflict Kant, As such, governments within the organisation are likely to intervene in member countries that engage in conflict Seybolt, Moreover, Pinker states that the increasing presence of international organisations—such as peacekeeping forces, which mediate negotiations between aggrieved parties—acts as a deterrent to renewed skirmishes, which can escalate into conflict.
In addition, analysis by Russett and Oneal finds that increased participation in international organisations reduces the likelihood of two countries within the same organisation engaging in conflict. These include income per capita, democracy, education, resource rents, population and bordering neighbours.
The control variables also help to minimise omitted variable bias. We expect that increases in income will reduce the grievances that make conflict more likely, such as poverty and inequality.
Collier and Hoeffler and Fearon and Laitin they find that low incomes per capita facilitate easy recruitment for rebel groups as income opportunities are worse in the formal labour market. This variable has contrasting results across the literature. While Krueger and Maleckova find no correlation suggesting that increased education decreases conflict, Collier and Hoeffler report that the number of males enrolled in secondary education has a negative effect on conflict.
Moreover, Reynal-Querol finds that the level of education is a significant determinant in reducing conflict, especially when not used in conjunction with income per capita. These contrasting results make it difficult to infer a priori expectations, but we expect a negative relationship between education and the magnitude of conflict.
It measures the checks and balances on the executive or the extent of institutionalised constraints on the decision-making powers of chief executives, whether individuals or collectives. A seven-category scale is used: The variable is normalised between zero and one.
According to Pinkerdemocratic countries tend to avoid disputes that hinder their trade relations and welfare gains. This is confirmed by Collier and Hoefflerwho find a significant negative democracy—conflict relationship, while evidence from Reynal-Querol shows that democracies, along with political systems that are more inclusive, are less prone to civil war.
Others, however, find no significant effect on conflict Barbieri and Reuveny, ; Elbadawi and Sambanis, ; Fearon and Laitin, ; Miguel et al. Although several studies find that democracy does not reduce the number of civil conflicts, it does seem to reduce their severity Gleditsch, ; Lacina, We expect increased democracy to be associated with lower magnitudes of conflict. Resource rents increase conflict through rentier effects that accrue to elite groups and raise the incentive to stay in power Fearon and Laitin, ; Pinker, These rents also fund rebel groups for those authoritarian incumbents who want to intimidate civilians Barbieri and Reuveny, ; Collier and Hoeffler, The resource curse appears prevalent in developing economies with weak governments Sachs and Warner, ; Ross, We expect a positive relationship between the number of bordering countries involved in conflict and the magnitude of conflict in the region.
According to Michalopoulos and Papaioannouconflict is more likely in countries containing ethnic groups split by artificial colonial borders because i these split groups can be used by governments to destabilise neighbouring countries for example, the DRC left Burundi rebels to operate within its borders to disrupt Congolese rebels that controlled part of the DRC and Burundi border Seybolt,and ii split ethnic groups that often face discrimination from the national government can engage in conflict with support from their co-ethnics across the border.
For example, Rwandan Hutu farmers displaced by the Burundi government joined rebel groups opposing the Burundi government Seybolt, Cross-country evidence from Bosker and de Ree also shows that the likelihood of conflict increases when there is an ethnic war in neighbouring countries.
Globalisation and Conflict: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa
First, is there any link between poverty and globalization? Second, what is the relationship between inequality and globalization? In others words, does international trade contribute to reduce or to worsen poverty and inequalities?
Such a study allows to linking theory to the economic practice used in quantitative economics. Moreover, the globalization process of national economies divides the world into two groups, people in favor of globalization and those against. In this context, it seems opportune to release an objective scientific study to get a clear view of the debate.
To do so, it is necessary to bear in mind that globalization is multidimensional and includes numerous aspects. From economy to culture passing by environment until the relationship between countries, many things are encompassed IMF, Thus, an article could not analyze completely such a phenomenon. And we do not pretend to do so.
That is why our work focuses more on international trade and its effect on poverty level and inequalities in 35 developing countries in the year based on two main hypotheses.
By the study of Stiglitzwe assume that globalization through international trade has helped many countries to develop quite quickly. While exportations promote growth, international trade contributes to economic development. We also suppose that globalization through international trade helps to reducing poverty and inequalities. The development of the economic system of society at a certain stage of this development made possible and necessary a holistic, generalized characteristics of this system within the framework of some concepts and scientific works.
For example, that was the case of neo-Keynesian dominating the economic policies around the world in the 50s. They have been dropped in the 70s in favor of neo-classical and neo-Marxism ideas which were accusing them for the economic crises in the world at that time.
The theoretical models adopted to address these crises, unlike the previous ones, claimed the significance of market, thus promoting the use of ultra-liberal policies.Globalization I - The Upside: Crash Course World History #41
This tendency has been reinforced with the splitting of the Soviet bloc and its socialist ideas based on centralized planning in the 80s. The concept refers to the increasing integration of economies around the world, mostly thanks to exchanges and financial flows. It is a complex and multiform phenomenon to be analyzed regarding a given context.
The literature on poverty abounds and shows many ways to define poverty. These ways lead to different identifications of the poor. According to the Welfare School, the concept of poverty comes from the modern microeconomic theory and the hypothesis according to which individuals maximize their welfare.
The Challenges of Globalization for Africa --Alassane D. Ouattara
They argue that it is a feeling provides by the satisfaction of a need and this satisfaction can come from marketable or non-marketable goods and services.
The School of basic needs defines poverty considering a small subset of goods and services specifically identified and perceived as satisfying basic needs of any human being. Many other approaches to the concept exist such as the three categories of poverty developed by Professor Kalonji Ntalaja, absolute poverty Verger et al.
Because of its multidimensional nature, it refers to the notion of relative poverty as well as issues related to distribution and social cohesion.