Depression increases the risk for uncontrolled hypertension
Independent studies on major depressive disorder (MDD) and hypertension, The association between white matter (WM) volumes and depression has been. Despite the high prevalence of depression and hypertension, the relationship between the two diseases has received little attention. This paper. But the CDC study suggests that the connection between mood and hypertension may be more direct than that. Experts suspect that anxiety and depression put.
You don't need to measure your blood pressure to know that a heated argument or a walk down a dark alley can send that pressure soaring. Your pounding heart and flushed face say it all. Stress can temporarily boost blood pressure: For instance, some people have short-term hikes in blood pressure when they visit a doctor's office. Fortunately, these spikes in pressure are usually too fleeting to threaten your health.
But when emotional turmoil becomes a way of life, your blood pressure can take a dangerous, long-term climb. Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC provide evidence that depression and severe anxiety may increase a person's risks for developing hypertension.
The landmark CDC study got its start in the early s with thorough psychological testing of nearly 3, adults with normal blood pressure. When researchers checked the blood pressure and medical records of the subjects between seven and 16 years later, they spotted a remarkable trend: People suffering from either severe depression or anxiety at the start of the study were two to three times more likely than the others to develop hypertension.
The researchers had made adjustments for smoking, age, history of heart disease, and other factors to arrive at the results. For the first time, researchers could see that depression and hypertension -- two of the most pervasive and costly conditions in America -- were intimately related. Since then, other investigations have found connections between hypertension and psychological distress. British researchers reported that patients with hypertension were particularly likely to have a history of panic attacks, or sudden feelings of terror that strike repeatedly and unexpectedly.
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- Depression and High Blood Pressure
- Depression increases the risk for uncontrolled hypertension
- The relationship between hypertension and anxiety or depression in Hong Kong Chinese
Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy. A review of the epidemiologic evidence.
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Hypertension and depression.
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A French study of the elderly in the community 4 revealed that hypertension was associated with anxiety but not depression. On the other hand, a longitudinal study of male-male twins 5 showed that hypertension was associated with depression, suggesting that there are common genetic factors that predispose individuals to hypertension and depression. Indeed, depressed persons have been shown to have increased ambulatory blood pressure compared with control subjects 6.
These results are still controversial because of a number of reports demonstrating the contrary. In a study by Friedman et al 7the predictive significance of psychological factors was negligible in the causation of mild hypertension.
In addition, Shinn et al 8 did not find a significant role for anxiety or depression in the development of hypertension. In Asian countries, data on the association between hypertension and anxiety or depression are scarce. In China, hypertension affects approximately million individuals 9.
Hypertension and depression
Because hypertension is a common disease in the community, there is a need to investigate the prevalence of anxiety and depression in these patients. Anxiety and depression may predispose individuals to develop hypertension but may also be a consequence of the disease. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between hypertension and anxiety or depression in adults from Hong Kong.
The null hypothesis was that there was no difference in the degree of anxiety or depression in subjects with and without hypertension. One hundred seventy-three subjects with hypertension were recruited from the hypertension outpatient clinic of Queen Mary Hospital Hong Konga university teaching hospital.
The exclusion criteria were subjects with secondary hypertension, with clinical depression or taking antidepressants, with clinical anxiety or taking anxiolytics, with other psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, and those who had been receiving any kind of treatment known to increase blood pressure or induce anxiety or depression. The participation rate was Of the subjects with hypertension, five did not answer all of the questions.
The control group comprised normotensive subjects recruited from the general population using random telephone numbers.