Qur'an and Modern Science: Compatible or Incompatible?, The - wagtailfarm.info
An interesting and important discussion of the relationship between Quran and Science What is the relationship of Quran to Science and Technology? . Sheikh Muhammad ibn Salih al-Utheimeen, a leading scholar of Islam who died only a. Lesson Fourteen: The Relationship of the Qur'an to Modern Science Part I . Hence there is complete correspondence between the facts of the Qur'an and the We read in Surah al-Imran: "Certainly in the creation of the heavens and earth . Muslim scholars have developed a spectrum of viewpoints on science within the context of Islam. The Quran exhorts Muslims to study nature and investigate the truth. Muslims often cite verse from Surah Al-Baqara – He has taught you what The physicist Abdus Salam believed there is no contradiction between Islam.
In the name of your Lord who created. Who created man from a clinging entity. Your Lord is the most Noble, Who taught by the pen. Who taught man what he did not know. All unofficial copies existing at that time were destroyed and all future copies were made from the official seven copies. Professor Jacques Berque has told me of the great importance he attaches to it in comparison with the long gap separating the writing down of the Judeo-Christian revelation from the facts and events which it relates.
I shall also mention another fact of great importance. In some cases, these statements were totally incomprehensible. The slightest alteration to the text would have automatically destroyed the remarkable coherence which is characteristic to them. Change in any text would have prevented us from establishing their total conformity with modern knowledge.
It spanned two periods of almost equal length on either side of the Hijrah. In view of this, it was natural for reflections having a scientific aspect to be scattered throughout the Book. In a study, such as the one we have made, we had to regroup the verses according to subject matter, collecting them chapter by chapter.
How should they be classified? It would seem to me, that the first subject to deal with is Creation. Here it is possible to compare the verses referring to this topic with the general ideas prevalent today on the formation of the Universe. Next, I divided up verses under the following general headings: This has been done in the cases of Creation, the Flood and the Exodus.
The reason that these topics were chosen is that knowledge acquired today can be used in the interpretation of the texts. This idea contradicts the parallels which are often wrongly drawn by Western authors to emphasize the resemblance between the two texts. To stress only the similarities, while silently ignoring the obvious dissimilarities, is to distort reality. There is, perhaps, a reason for this. It refers both to the heavens before the earth and the earth before the heavens, when it talks of creation in general, as in this verse of chapter Taa Haa: As well as descriptions of the elements which, although at first were fused together ratqthey subsequently became separated fatq.
These ideas are expressed in chapters Fussilat and al-Anbiyaa: In contrast, the successive phases of creation mentioned in the Biblical text are totally unacceptable.
For example, in Genesis 1: It is a well known fact that our planet came from its own star, the sun. Such a claim would mean that, of his own accord, he corrected the Biblical text to arrive at the correct concept concerning the formation of the Universe. Yet the correct concept was reached by scientists many centuries after his death.
But, this is a mistaken idea resulting from an ignorance of history. The material on this subject is so vast that I can only provide a brief outline of it here. The Sun and Moon. It was much later discovered that stars are heavenly bodies producing their own light like the sun. Galaxies are balanced by the position of stars and planets in well-defined orbits, as well as the interplay of gravitational forces produced by their masses and the speed of their movements.
In chapter al-Ambiyaa we find: Each one is traveling in an orbit with its own motion. They are well known for the moon, but less widely known for the sun. It is not until man landed on the moon and observed the earth spinning on its axis, that the dark half of the globe appeared to wind itself around the light and the light half appeared to wind itself around the dark.
Modern astronomy confirms that the solar system is indeed moving in space at a rate of 12 miles per second towards a point situated in the constellation of Hercules alpha lyrae whose exact location has been precisely calculated. Astronomers have even give it a name, the solar apex. The regular movement of the galactic light towards the red section of the spectrum is explained by the distancing of one galaxy from another.
Thus, the size of the universe appears to be progressively increasing. You will not penetrate them except with authority. They deal, not only with the physical phenomena observed here on earth, but also with details concerning the living organisms that inhabit it.
At this point, we must ask ourselves the following question: How could an uneducated man in the middle of the desert accurately tackle so many and such varied subjects at a time when mythology and superstition reigned supreme?
How could he so skillfully avoid every belief that was proven to be totally inaccurate many centuries later? Water Cycle The verses dealing with the earthly systems are a case in point.
This is a topic which is well known today. But if we consider the ideas prevalent at that time, they appear to be based more on myth and philosophical speculation than on observed fact, even though useful practical knowledge on soil irrigation was current at that period. In fact, the sun travels through space at roughly miles per second, and takes about million years to complete one revolution around the center of our Milky Way Galaxy.
Each just swims along in its own orbit according to Law. The 'fixed place' towards, which the sun travels, carrying with it the solar system, has been located exactly by modern astronomy.
It has been given a name, the Solar Apex.
The solar system is indeed moving in space towards a point situated in the constellation of Hercules alpha Layer whose exact location is firmly established. The moon rotates around its axis in the same duration that it takes to revolve around the earth. One cannot help but be amazed at the scientific accuracy of the Qur'anic verses.
Should we not ponder over the question: It will come to an end at some point of time in the future when the sun will be totally extinguished leading to extinction of all life on earth.
Regarding the impermanence of the sun's existence the Qur'an says: Thus the Qur'an says that the sun runs towards a determined place, and will do so only up to a pre-determined period of time — meaning that it will end or extinguish. Astrophysicists later discovered the presence of bridges of matter in this interstellar space. These bridges of matter are called plasma, and consist of completely ionized gas containing equal number of free electrons and positive ions.
Plasma is sometimes called the fourth state of matter besides the three known states viz.
The Relationship between Quran & Science. Is the earth flat?
The Qur'an mentions the presence of this interstellar material in the following verse: The expansion of the universe is now an established scientific fact. This is what Al-Qur'an says regarding the nature of the universe: For it is We who create the vastness of Space.
Stephen Hawking, in his book, 'A Brief History of Time', says, "The discovery that the universe is expanding was one of the great intellectual revolutions of the 20th century. Some may say that the presence of astronomical facts in the Qur'an is not surprising since the Arabs were advanced in the field of astronomy. They are correct in acknowledging the advancement of the Arabs in the field of astronomy. However they fail to realize that the Qur'an was revealed centuries before the Arabs excelled in astronomy.
Moreover many of the scientific facts mentioned above regarding astronomy, such as the origin of the universe with a Big Bang, were not known to the Arabs even at the peak of their scientific advancement. The scientific facts mentioned in the Qur'an are therefore not due to the Arabs' advancement in astronomy.
Indeed, the reverse is true. The Arabs advanced in astronomy, because astronomy occupies a place in the Qur'an. Physics i The Existence of Subatomic Particles In ancient times a well-known theory by the name of 'Theory of Atomism' was widely accepted. This theory was originally proposed by the Greeks, in particular by a man called Democritus, who lived about 23 centuries ago.
Democritus and the people that came after him, assumed that the smallest unit of matter was the atom. The Arabs used to believe the same. The Arabic word dharrah most commonly meant an atom. In recent times modern science has discovered that it is possible to split even an atom. That the atom can be split further is a development of the 20th century.
Fourteen centuries ago this concept would have appeared unusual even to an Arab.
The Relationship between Quran & Science. Is the earth flat? - Islamway
For him the dharrah was the limit beyond which one could not go. The following Qur'anic verse however, refuses to acknowledge this limit: But most surely, By my Lord, it will come upon you — by Him Who knows the unseen — from Whom is not hidden the least little atom in the heavens or on earth: It then goes further and says that God is aware of everything, including what is smaller or bigger than the atom.
Thus the verse clearly shows that it is possible for something smaller than the atom to exist, a fact discovered only recently by modern science.
Geography i The Water Cycle InBernard Palissy was the first man to describe the present day concept of 'water cycle'. He described how water evaporates from the oceans and cools to form clouds. The clouds move inland where they rise, condense and fall as rain. This water gathers as lakes and streams and flows back to the ocean in a continuous cycle.
In the 7th century BC, Thales of Miletus believed that surface spray of the oceans was picked up by the wind and carried inland to fall as rain. In earlier times people did not know the source of underground water.
They thought the water of the oceans, under the effect of winds, was thrust towards the interior of the continents. They also believed that the water returned by a secret passage, or the Great Abyss.
This passage is connected to the oceans and has been called the 'Tartarus', since Plato's time. Even Descartes, a great thinker of the eighteenth century, subscribed to this view. Till the nineteenth century, Aristotle's theory was prevalent. According to this theory, water was condensed in cool mountain caverns and formed underground lakes that fed springs.
Today, we know that the rainwater that seeps into the cracks of the ground is responsible for this. The water cycle is described by the Qur'an in the following verses: Then He causes to grow, therewith, produce of various colours.
Verily in that are Signs For those who are wise. In this context, impregnate means that the wind pushes the clouds together increasing the condensation that causes lightning and thus rain. A similar description is found in the Qur'an: The water cycle is described in several verses of the Glorious Qur'an, including 3: Folding is responsible for the formation of mountain ranges. The earth's crust, on which we live, is like a solid shell, while the deeper layers are hot and fluid, and thus inhospitable to any form of life.
It is also known that the stability of the mountains is linked to the phenomenon of folding, for it was the folds that were to provide foundations for the reliefs that constitute the mountains.
Geologists tell us that the radius of the Earth is about 3, miles and the crust on which we live is very thin, ranging between 1 to 30 miles. Since the crust is thin, it has a high possibility of shaking. Mountains act like stakes or tent pegs that hold the earth's crust and give it stability. The Qur'an contains exactly such a description in the following verse: A book named 'Earth' is considered as a basic reference textbook on geology in many universities around the world.
In this book he illustrates the mountain in a wedge-shape and the mountain itself as a small part of the whole, whose root is deeply entrenched in the ground.
Also see Earth Science, Tarbuck and Lutgens, p. Press, the mountains play an important role in stabilizing the crust of the earth. The Qur'an clearly mentions the function of the mountains in preventing the earth from shaking: These plates float on a partially molten region called aesthenosphere.
Mountain formations occur at the boundary of the plates. The earth's crust is 5km thick below oceans, about 35km thick below flat continental surfaces and almost 80km thick below great mountain ranges. These are the strong foundations on which mountains stand. The Qur'an also speaks about the strong mountain foundations in the following verse: This barrier is not a physical partition.
The Arabic word maraja literally means 'they both meet and mix with each other'. Early commentators of the Qur'an were unable to explain the two opposite meanings for the two bodies of water, i. Modern Science has discovered that in the places where two different seas meet, there is a barrier between them. This barrier divides the two seas so that each sea has its own temperature, salinity and density. There is a slanted unseen water barrier between the two seas through which water from one sea passes to the other.
But when the water from one sea enters the other sea, it loses its distinctive characteristic and becomes homogenized with the other water. In a way this barrier serves as a transitional homogenizing area for the two waters.
This scientific phenomenon mentioned in the Qur'an was also confirmed by Dr. The Qur'an mentions this phenomenon also in the following verse: But when the Qur'an speaks about the divider between fresh and salt water, it mentions the existence of "a forbidding partition" with the barrier. It has been discovered that what distinguishes fresh water from salt water in estuaries is a "pycnocline zone with a marked density discontinuity separating the two layers.
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Also see Introductory Oceanography, Thurman, pp. He was asked to comment on the following verse: For any to whom Allah giveth not light, there is no light! Rao said that scientists have only now been able to confirm, with the help of modern equipment that there is darkness in the depths of the ocean. Humans are unable to dive unaided underwater for more than 20 to 30 meters, and cannot survive in the deep oceanic regions at a depth of more than meters.
This verse does not refer to all seas because not every sea can be described as having accumulated darkness layered one over another. It refers especially to a deep sea or deep ocean, as the Qur'an says, "darkness in a vast deep ocean". This layered darkness in a deep ocean is the result of two causes: A light ray is composed of seven colours.
The light ray undergoes refraction when it hits water. The upper 10 to 15 metres of water absorb the red colour. Therefore if a diver is 25 metres under water and gets wounded, he would not be able to see the red colour of his blood, because the red colour does not reach this depth.
Similarly orange rays are absorbed at 30 to 50 metres, yellow at 50 to metres, green at to metres, and finally, blue beyond metres and violet and indigo above metres. Due to successive disappearance of colour, one layer after another, the ocean progressively becomes darker, i.
Below a depth of meters there is complete darkness. This is the first layer of darkness. When light rays reach the surface of the ocean they are reflected by the wave surface giving it a shiny appearance.
Therefore it is the waves which reflect light and cause darkness. The unreflected light penetrates into the depths of the ocean. Therefore the ocean has two parts. The surface characterized by light and warmth and the depth characterized by darkness. The surface is further separated from the deep part of the ocean by waves. The internal waves cover the deep waters of seas and oceans because the deep waters have a higher density than the waters above them.
The darkness begins below the internal waves. Even the fish in the depths of the ocean cannot see; their only source of light is from their own bodies. The Qur'an rightly mentions: The Qur'anic verse continues, " Durga Rao concluded by saying, " years ago a normal human being could not explain this phenomenon in so much detail. Thus the information must have come from a supernatural source.
We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe? Was it possible 14 centuries ago for any human-being to guess that every living being was made of water? Moreover would such a guess be conceivable by a human being in the deserts of Arabia where there has always been scarcity of water? Thus do we explain in detail the signs for a people who give thought.
Due to the tentative conclusions created by induction, this cannot be the case. Each particular word it employs to describe the natural world has many meanings. These words can relate to past and present understanding of the natural world, and they can relate to the non-scientific areas of spirituality and morality. These verses are signposts pointing us towards God as the only being worthy of worship. They are not there to provide details on science, this is not their purpose.
The reference to the creation of the heavens and the earth indicates and demonstrates the tremendous power and might of their Creator. The way they are fashioned testifies to the uniqueness of His handiwork and astounding wisdom.
It also refers to the beneficial nature of the creation and its harmony with human life and needs, the benefits and advantages we gain and depend upon. All these are indicative of the grace and Mercy of the Creator and His providential care for His servants. Besides, these also clearly demonstrate that there is a higher purpose behind the creation of this life and the universe. We will see how they relate to many levels of understanding for different people across different times.
These movements could be confirmed by the naked eye of a desert Arab. But the word also makes sense to us in the 21st century: According to scientists, it takes million years for the sun to complete its orbit around the Milky Way. Remarkably, the word calaqah also refers to a worm or a leech. This can relate to the external and internal appearance of the leech. Although the embryo during days 22 to 25 can be seen with the naked eye, it is about the size of a wheat kernel and such details cannot be seen without a microscope,  which was discovered in the 15th century.
External Structure of a Leech compared to the Embryo Figure 1 A, shows a lateral view of an embryo size 2. Note the leech-like appearance of the human embryos at this stage. Internal Structure of a Leech compared to the Embryo Figure 2 A, Ventral dissection showing the internal anatomical structure of a leech. The nervous system of the leech,Scientific American B, Dorsal view of a somite embryo at approximately 24 days, actual size 3.
Note the remarkable similarity in appearance between the human embryo and the internal structure of the leech. Another notable and interesting the embryo can be liked to a leech.