Castes and Politics in Modern India | Sudhir Kumar - wagtailfarm.info
role in the global economy, gender relations, its political institutes, and social changes that have . Ghurye goes into the relationship between race and caste, the origins Hutton, J. H. Caste in India: Its Nature, Function and Origins. Bombay. sociology or social anthropology that the best way to understand the nature of the system that The caste system divides society into various caste groups with a well . The association of a caste with an occupation has been so striking that it. She did this in two ways:(i) by examine the nature of relationship between caste and politics and (ii) by examine the type of change that have taken place in.
N Srinivas the role played by caste in politics is in close approximation to that of the pressure group. The modernizing forces will however reduce the influence of caste over the politics.
Caste and Politics in Indian Society
However Andre Beteille holds that while westernization is taking individual away from caste identity the role of caste in politics is taking the people towards the caste identity and thereby strengthening it. Rajni Kothari studied the nature of relationship between caste and politics. He has also examined the type of changes that have taken place in the political system as a result of the involvement of caste organization.
Caste has three important indigenous elements -secular which refers to relevance of caste in politics in terms of the relations within and between castes. Integrative which refers to castes being relevant to politics through differentiation and integration and ideological which is heightened by its value structure.
The analysis of Dominant Caste and political process by Anil Bhatt reveals the crucial role played by castes in politics and awareness of the lower castes of their political gains.
He found that the higher caste groups had lower political interest and low castes higher political interests. Political awareness was high among the higher castes and was low among the lower castes.
Lower castes by organizing themselves in pursuit of collective interest were able to emerge successfully. The involvement of these castes organization in politics has changed their position in hierarchical pattern of Hindu society. Caste solidarity and political power helped them to achieve higher social, economic and political success. This was highlighted by the studies conducted by Rudolf and Rudolf. Caste has become one of the most formidable element of group formation within political parties in India.
Leach 4, Gough 5 and Bailey 6 have argued that ideally the caste system is characterized by interdependence and co-operation and its does not permit different castes to compete for political power.
Politics or competition for political power is confined within the dominant caste.
Rajni Kothari 7 studied relationship between caste and politics as a relationship for the specific purpose of organizing public activities. She did this in two ways: Thus, his focus was not so much on what happens to the caste system as a whole but on what happens to political system because of the vote of castes.
Caste and Politics
Andre Beteille 8 has also discussed on the basis of his study of castes in Tamil Nadu in s the problem of how caste enters into politics. Beteille has suggested that two kinds of changes seem to be taking place in the relation between caste and politics; one, power shifts from one dominant caste to another; 4 and two, the locus of power shifts from the caste system itself to differentiated structures of power like political parties, panchayats, etc.
Anil Bhatt 9 on the basis of his study on caste and political mobilization in one district in Gujarat had pointed out that the problem of mobilization of masses today are the same they were seven to eight decades ago. Caste as a traditional principle of social stratification involving ascriptive allocation of occupations continues to characterize society and polity in India.
It appears to be so much deep-rooted in cultural system that while the whole society has been undergoing a steady transformation, in make of urbanization, industrialization and globalization, its residual influences on social, political behavior have tended to persist overtime.
In fact, caste involving culturally defined patterns of instituizned inequality, has itself been the greatest impediment to the efforts for social and economic modernization of the state.
Even today caste system seems to have found its own way to survive the onslaughts of modern social forces, thanks to the ineffectiveness of social legislation and widespread prevalence of caste politics.
Caste and Modern Politics: The prevailing dichotomy between tradition and modernity has created a curious cognitive hiatus- on ideological thinking as well as in much of social science theorizing between societies on the one hand and 5 polity on the other.
The former is conceived, as if by definition, as traditional; the latter as modern and development The electoral politics has led the caste associations, which formerly served only social, charitable or educational purposes, to jump into the political arena. Vote banks on caste lines have now appeared.
The political mobilization of caste has led to new forms of caste alliance. This has initiated a process of fusion and fission in the caste structure. The involvement of democratically elected bodies in decision making process and distribution of economic resources and opportunities made caste organizations conscious of need to enter into electoral arena to gain power and resources. It influenced their response in three broad stages: This led to the process of fusion among castes.
The objective was mainly to enlarge the political base to gain power and access to resources.
Caste and Politics,Political Processes,Sociology Guide
The effort was to unite the peasant castes 6 into a single unit for electoral politics. Several political parties on the basis of caste following emerge in different parts of the country. The fission process in caste association result from internal tensions on the basis of economic, social and political rivalries which mature due to uneven distribution of the share in power and resources among the competitive castes. This leads to disillusionment and tensions and eventually the caste associations being to develop fissures and the break-up starts.
The processes of fusion and fission in caste associations have been analyzed in terms of its contribution to political modernsation and national integration.Caste In Politics And Politics In Caste In Hindi - class 10th - learn with Tarun
We may find that each step towards transformation of castes into caste association it also a step towards weakening of the ritualistic form of caste consciousness and caste loyalties as it leads to emergence of secular objective of alignment.