Belo Horizonte - Wikipedia
Meet Me In Rio Lyrics: I've wasted some years / Looking for the things that matter / Looking for the things that never appear / 'til they're done / And they may. I am grateful to Eduardo Giannetti for pointing me to Feynman's observations. Batista dos Mares Guia, former state education secretary, Belo Horizonte, January See Janice Pearlman, Favela: Four Decades of Living on the Edge in Rio de See Veja, 13 March , for police crimes; New York Times, 9 January. Travel feed: Belo Horizonte. Belo Horizonte Restaurants. Rua Curitiba , Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais , Brazil.
Cruz's plans to clean the city of diseases included compulsory vaccination of the entire population and forced entry into houses to kill mosquitos and rats. The people of city rebelled against Cruz's policy, in what would be known as the Vaccine Revolt. The mutineers took control of the battleship Minas Geraes and threatened to fire on the city. This revolt marked the beginning of Tenentisma movement that resulted in the Brazilian Revolution of that started the Vargas Era.
Until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre see belowon the mouth of Guanabara Bay. The city's centre of gravity began to shift south and west to the so-called Zona Sul South Zone in the early part of the 20th century, when the first tunnel was built under the mountains between Botafogo and the neighbourhood that is now known as Copacabana.
Expansion of the city to the north and south was facilitated by the consolidation and electrification of Rio's streetcar transit system after Plans for moving the nation's capital city from Rio de Janeiro to the centre of Brazil had been occasionally discussed, and when Juscelino Kubitschek was elected president init was partially on the strength of promises to build a new capital.
The territory of the former Federal District became its own state, Guanabaraafter the bay that borders it to the east, encompassing just the city of Rio de Janeiro. Twenty years later, inthe city hosted another conference on sustainable developmentnamed United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. The city became the first South American city to host the event and the second Latin American city after Mexico City in to host the Games.
Rio de Janeiro at night in Satellite view of Greater Rio de Janeiro Rio de Janeiro is on the far western part of a strip of Brazil's Atlantic coast between a strait east to Ilha Grandeon the Costa Verdeand the Cabo Frioclose to the Tropic of Capricornwhere the shoreline is oriented east—west.
The greater portion of the city, commonly referred to as the North Zone Zona Norteextends to the northwest on plains composed of marine and continental sediments and on hills and several rocky mountains.
The South Zone Zona Sul of the city, reaching the beaches fringing the open sea, is cut off from the Centre and from the North Zone by coastal mountains. These mountains and hills are offshoots of the Serra do Mar to the northwest, the ancient gneiss-granite mountain chain that forms the southern slopes of the Brazilian Highlands. The large West Zone Zona Oestelong cut off by the mountainous terrain, had been made more easily accessible to those on the South Zone by new roads and tunnels by the end of the 20th century.
Residents of the city are known as cariocas. The focus group discussions and interviews were recorded and then transcribed. A content analysis technique 9 was used to analyze the research material, which made it possible to create thematic data analysis categories by identifying similar issues.
The method used to prepare the thematic categories followed the stages established by Minayo To guarantee anonymity, the interviewees were identified by numbers. Results and Discussion With the data analysis findings, obtained after detailed examination of the interviews and focus groups transcripts, and based on literature on the subject, the following thematic categories were created: Attitudinal Barriers In order for a society to be inclusive, it needs to accept all individuals, respecting their differences, individual characteristics and limitations Even so, many societies are not prepared to deal with these differences, which leads to discrimination Prejudice and discrimination represent an enormous barrier to inclusion, since they promote stigma and create stereotypes, which makes it difficult for private companies to hire disabled persons These differences are seen by some companies as being a factor that complicates their relations with clients.
He had one eye that was all opaque, you know, that cloudy eye that makes one feel bad just looking at it? So I thought about putting him to work in the customer service center. But how could I put someone like that in the customer service center?
People would find it hard just to look at him, because it makes you feel bad just looking at him with that cloudy eye and you know how demanding clients can be in some respects.
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They do not find it that easy to accept diversity Company 4, So, the use of legal rulings, such as Law No. The aim of these measures is to treat unequally those people who are in a situation of disadvantage, so as to make them less unequal In this case, the Law benefits disabled persons by making their inclusion in the labor market mandatory, and by penalizing firms that fail to observe this law.
However, legislation alone is not capable of promoting inclusion in the workplace in a broader sense, and that is why it is necessary to promote greater awareness among the population about the real limitations and potential of these individuals. This awareness should involve the whole community, since anyone is liable to acquire a disability or is liable to interact such disabled persons. Tanaka and Manzini 13 reaffirm that the process to integrate disabled professionals is made more difficult due to the fact that, among other things, most people do not believe that disabled persons have the capacity to perform the work they are given, which represents an attitudinal barrier that makes inclusion even more difficult.
One of the questions that illustrate the prejudices and discrimination involved when hiring these people is that companies prefer to choose slightly disabled persons.
The job vacancies made available were as follows: Professional 9, What I look for most are people with physical defects. People with a problem in one of their feet, in one of their hands, in their shoulder, minor disabilities.
Because I can give these people better training.
Company 6, Several authors 314 — 23 say that a choice of the type of deficiency that people have is primarily related to their professional qualifications.
The physically disabled are more likely to have better professional qualifications. In addition, adaptations do not have to be made to the work stations of slightly disabled persons, thereby incurring less cost to the company 16 — These factors greatly limit the range of people who can apply for the job being offered, making it even more difficult for them to be employed and for the company to obey the law. Education and Professional Training Professional qualification is considered a barrier to employment, from the point of view of both the company and disabled persons themselves.
They arrive here without any qualifications; they simply don't have the qualifications the company needs Company 2, The question is education.
We see many disabled persons leave school, during elementary school or third or fourth grade, due to a series of difficulties, and this makes it difficult for them to find a job, to earn a salary that gives them more than they would receive from government benefits, so it seems the first step is to get a good education PWD 16, The educational background of disabled persons, both as regards elementary education as well as professional training, is a challenge 1517 — Brazil has made some advances as regards improving education in favor of inclusive education.
However, disabled persons and members of their families still have to face many challenges in order to gain quality education. It can be said that there is a close relationship between inclusive education and an inclusive labor force. Inclusive education, from childhood, enables disabled persons to co-exist with others. This reduces prejudice and discrimination and encourages inclusion. Inclusive education also encourages disabled persons to learn to deal with others, improving the relationship they have with society in general.
However, there are few educators with the capacity to deal with the particular characteristics of disabled persons, which ends up having an adverse effect on their education and, as a result, their inclusion in the workplace. Some companies, that are aware of this problem, offer a continued education program, there being no requirement for a disabled person to have prior qualifications.
We are flexible about everything. We are prepared to train, to guide, to find a place for those who do not even have basic training Company 2, Furthermore, the lack of professional qualifications is directly related to salary scales 22 — If people have little education, their salary will also be low, which may discourage those receiving Continuous Cash Benefits BPC from seeking employment.
It's the domino effect. You have the question of a low level of education or poor quality schooling.BHAD BHABIE - "Trust Me" feat. Ty Dolla $ign (Official Music VIdeo) - Danielle Bregoli
So, you have no schooling, no professional experience at all, and can only earn a low salary in comparison with the benefits you will receive in the same amount PWD 15, For this reason, professional training programs directed by professionals able to deal with the limitations that disabled persons might have, are vital to ensure their work is valued.
Thus, this benefit includes a series of social protection policies that oblige the State to fulfill its duty to promote the citizenship of the poorest members of Brazilian society 26 It is important to stress that this benefit is also designed to financially support severely disabled persons who are unable to enter the job market.
Thus, this benefit represents a form of security and guarantees basic consumer products, as well as social and financial independence Disabled persons are often offered a salary that is equal to or less than what they are receiving in welfare benefits. Until quite recently, the right to these benefits was cancelled when a person entered the formal labor market.
Thus, many beneficiaries preferred to stay at home, with a guaranteed income, rather than taking the risk of entering an uncertain and hostile working environment. When considering all the barriers and forms of discrimination they face, it is understandable that disabled persons see the BPC as the better option.
In their everyday life, disabled persons are used to people looking at them and saying: So this person thinks: I get a minimum salary for staying quietly at home without having to face these sort of problems Professional 4, To question the BPC, on the basis that it is a factor that discourages people to seek insertion in the formal labor market, does not diminish or ignore its importance as a valid social conquest capable of protecting disabled persons and their families from extreme material deprivation.
Our aim is to show that this is a factor and to encourage a debate about the best strategies to use to ensure inclusion. This benefit should not been seen in a negative form, either by government agencies, or by companies and civil society. On the contrary, it is essential to ensure these individuals do not have to live on the edge of society or remain socially-vulnerable.
Even when faced with all these challenges, some people prefer to give up their welfare benefits to enter the labor market. They understand that work adds greatly to their lives in a way that the BPC never can, including socialization, self-esteem and a sense of identity. I believe that work is life itself, this is where I gained an identity, my sense of being, independence, when I began to learn to live with my disability, to come and go learning how to live with others and being able to help others, as well as achieving something worthwhile for myself PWD 16, Some of the disabled persons also said that they had never regretted their decision to forego welfare payments.
They see the advantages they can gain by working. Only stay at home?
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At work, you have a bit of fun, get to know other people. With welfare benefits, you end up doing nothing; you only stay at home on your own PWD 13, Work opened up new horizons for me, both financial and as regards the people I now spend time with […] if I was just living on BPC benefits, I would never have been able to give meaning to things, this is what work does for you 21, Even those who still do not work said they did not feel comfortable receiving benefits and that they wanted to work.
However, this is not the only reason for the difficulties involved in employing disabled persons. I want to use my ability to work to receive my own salary I want to be recognized for my value as a person. PWD 10, Everybody throws it in your face that you don't work, but still get paid, which is not good PWD 18, It's like, you are useless, not good for anything PWD 5, A sense of belonging and of being useful to society, which is achieved through work was often mentioned, which shows the importance this has to enable people to participate effectively in society and to have their abilities recognized, as has been observed by other authors 2127 — I was promoted, just like the others, which means they recognized me as a person PWD 20, It is interesting to note that disabled persons are keen to find work.
What they fear most is prejudice, unemployment and loss of income. They seek security, like everyone else. Inthe Federal government published an amendment to the legislation, Law No.
Even so, because there is little credibility in governments, as regards guaranteeing the continuity of policies, the lack of agility and bureaucracy that exists in Brazilian government agencies when it comes to ensuring the rights of citizens, means that disabled persons and their families are reluctant to exchange benefits for income derived from work. Benefit payments are often a family's only source of income and the recipient's own family will discourage them from seeking employment.
Some families make it difficult for people to be employed, not letting them enter the job market, not letting them grow, because they are afraid of losing this benefit. Association 4, The role of the family Having a disabled person within the family often changes the pattern of family life and requires that some of its members assume the care and responsibilities needed to protect and promote the health and life of this individual Many relatives, in spite of their devoted care, are unaware of people's capacity and do not know how to help them develop their potential, and end up treating them as if they are incapable of doing anything for themselves.
This overly-protective environment interferes with people's social relationships and affects their behavior in the workplace. I have seen youngsters arrive here because they know we support inclusion in the workplace, but who have been treated like children until they were in their 20s, so have absolutely no idea what work means. Association 6, Family is the first social environment that any individual has, and it is within this context that children learn to relate to others, to deal with their frustrations, to state their opinions, to fight for their rights, and to recognize their duties, to respect others, among other situations that are inherent in social co-existence In this sense, super-protective families do not allow disabled persons to learn to deal with their obligations and the demands of social life, which influences the way they behave when they work for a company.
Finally, it is important to highlight the fact that families are worried about the way disabled persons will be treated in their working environment, which they consider to be hostile. They are also afraid about leaving them open to prejudice, sexual abuse, the abuse of power and moral harassment, among other situations that can be common: Yes, I was afraid. Afraid of an accident, that he would cut his finger, cut his hand, of sexual abuse, get involved in drugs; this all created a sense of fear among us, a very real sense of fear.
Family member 6, It is therefore clear that family involvement is an important element in the inclusion process. When a family fails to encourage their offspring to find work, this adversely affects their inclusion. However, when there is family involvement and belief in this process, this makes inclusion much easier. Finding work is very important. It is vital in this process in the lives of disabled persons because this will greatly enhance their self-esteem and socialization, which is a basic human need, as well as their sense of commitment and responsibility; you notice the difference when a person fits into the labor market.
Family member 8, I saw M the disabled person grow a lot when he went out to work, My goodness, M made a huge leap forward which I never thought possible […]. He recently said to me: Oh Mum, who would have thought, eh?
People used to see me and say: Wow, that boy is really retarded. I'm not retarded at all. Now I have a bank account and lend money to those who used to call me retarded. Family member 4, The lack of preparedness of companies Many companies describe the lack of commitment shown by disabled persons towards their work, their attendance, punctuality and the activities that need to be performed, as well as demanding differential treatment. So, it is essential to adopt fexible working hours for the well-being of certain people and this should be part of a company's inclusion program In this case, if a company has not been informed about the clinical conditions of these individuals, it will make it even more difficult for them to hire or to provide long-term work for disabled persons.
Some companies describe a high-turnover caused by demands for insignificant pay rises. This might indicate that, if disabled persons see that there is no real prospect of achieving inclusion, or of building a career and performing a worthwhile job, and then they may decide to think only about the economic gains involved. There is a pretty high turn-over. Company 1, It was seen that companies are ill-prepared to deal with such individuals and to recognize their needs and potential.
The lack of information about the working capacity of these people and their disabilities makes inclusion difficult. But a deaf person has to stop [working] because he communicates with his hands. The boss doesn't like this because he stops what he is doing.