The Tie-Ins of Uncle Tom's Cabin
Read this full essay on The Influence of Little Eva in "Uncle Tom's Cabin" by Harriet to the slave market, he met the angelic Eva who had grown fond of Tom over time. Even Augustine himself began building a close relationship with Tom. of Tom's second master, the father of little Eva, Augustine St. Clare.2 In Uncle Tom's Cabin the mapping of power relations alongside desire on the . Stowe cannot purge the desiring gazes at the New Orleans market she recon- structs. Artist. Title. Robert S. Duncanson, American, - Uncle Tom and Little Eva. Date. Robert S. Duncanson, American, - , Medium.
This immersion helped to make the novel a bestseller and it, in turn, catalyzed the manufacture of popular culture commodities that extended the influence of the novel because of their ubiquity and popularity. By the early twentieth century, the role of transmitting messages about interracial harmony had shifted to the Tom shows from their progenitor — the novel.
File:Edwin Longsden Long - Uncle Tom and Little Eva.JPG
Before the second decade of the twentieth-century, tie-ins of literary works were unlicensed. A manufacturer did not have to obtain from the copyright holder permission to produce commodities based on the copyrighted work. Copyright holders frequently produced tie-ins in the form of books. In the publishing and literary world of the late eighteenth-century through the beginning of the twentieth century, publishers and authors rarely produced non-literary tie-ins such as mementoes, statues, needlework, and items of clothing.
Nevertheless, publishers including Jewett realized the potential of non-literary tie-ins. For example, he paid John Greenleaf Whittier fifty dollars to write a poem about Little Eva, which he had set to music above right. Because existing law did not deem that the characters, objects, and images associated with a text belonged to the author or copyright holder, anyone or any business might appropriate such a popular object and reproduce it for profit.
Literary tie-ins arose with modern consumerism, and as historian Peter N. Stearns argues, this phenomenon first appeared in Western Europe even before the industrial revolution. It was an American book, and it generated more tie-ins than any other pre-twentieth-century book. Almost all these goods were produced for the expanding transatlantic market of middle- to upper-class consumers.
Because of the popularity of Uncle Tom, both the book and stage show, every manufacturer of products such as textiles, books, games, and other paper entertainment products, decorative arts including wallpaper, ceramics and metal work who could push goods by associating them with the novel or play did so. At the high end of consumer goods inspired by the novel stand some very expensive objects — a large piece of Berlin work or needlework featuring Uncle Tom and Eva, a girandole or candlestick, and Limoges spill vases.
Though these objects are rarified in terms of their high prices, they participated fully in the popular culture of their day because of their subject matter and composition. To hear song, click image. To see handkerchief, click image. Click image to enlarge.
This Berlin worked, or needleworked, image of Uncle Tom and Eva probably occupied a central position on a wall. Berlin work refers to tapestries or needlework stitched with brightly colored wool following patterns printed in Berlin, Germany. In the mid-nineteenth-century marketplace, the Tom and Eva pattern was just one of over 40, patterns available. Most Berlin work came in sizes smaller than the Tom and Eva and featured animals, country life, or religious figures.
The large-sized piece featuring Uncle Tom and Eva probably had, though it cannot be said for sure, a well-to-do purchaser and stitcher. She had to be able to afford this imported, commercially designed piece of needlework, to have extensive time free from her own housework and child care to finish it, and a wall large enough to display it on.
To maximize the size of their potential market, manufacturers of printed Berlin designs usually offered non-controversial content. Despite the atypicality of its price, the girandole as well as inexpensive earthenware figures depended upon a hierarchy of size and bisymmetrical arrangement. In these girandoles and other decorative arts, literary characters are often paired, and this pairing replicates the construction of characters in their literary sources.
Characters often appeared in duos: Such a dual system fitted nineteenth-century literary and aesthetic taste as well as cultural politics in which it took two to make a complete one. Paired figures are found on both inexpensive ceramic figures and this expensive girandole.
Little Eva: The Flower of the South - Wikipedia
In the center stood a grouping including Natty Bumppo and Chingachgook. With this center, the tripartite composition establishes a hierarchy: With Natty and the Mohicans in the largest central grouping of figures, the overall design of this tripartite suite rates most highly the values carried by Natty, his Indian friends, and their relationship.
Limoges Spill Vases, c. Click either image to enlarge. Both girandoles and vases were expensive discretionary purchases that well-to-do consumers alone could afford.
It is impossible to know exactly when these vases entered the United States. They may have been used in France or England until their importation in the second half of the twentieth century by an American collector of Stowe-related or antislavery themed items. The vases started their commercial life in the Limoges region of France, in the s. There, factories produced durable porcelain that could be shaped in intricately fashioned molds and that when fired and glazed approached a pure white color.
These particular vases were molded and given their first high temperature firing at the French factory. After the decoration to the main body was completed, the vases received a second firing at very high heat after which they were shipped to decorating studios and shops throughout Europe and the United States.
New York City was first among American coastal cities as a center for porcelain finishing because it attracted immigrants from Europe with the skills necessary for completing the design.
In New York City shops, artists, usually women, painted the vases before they received a final firing at a lower heat. If you look carefully at the Limoges pieces, you will see that the material of the main vase has a high gloss finish, whereas the thematic figures in the center have a matte or lower gloss finish, resulting from the heat at which the vase was fired.
To accommodate the pocket books and decorating exigencies of various customers, these spill vases were marketed in at least two sizes.
After a first firing, an artisan tinted the complexion of white figures to make their coloring less monochromatic and more realistic. African Americans usually appear with less-nuanced complexions, as the fired white clay had to be covered first with a solid black or brown and subsequently detailed. Thus, the white color of the ceramic material itself comported with the idea of whiteness as normative among the buying population.
Despite the actual distance of the houses of the well-to-do classes from urban life, many of the objects that they contained received their inspiration from that source. For example, consider the choice of themes for the spill vases: The composition for each vase appears to have been drawn directly from lithographs, an inexpensive art form for nineteenth-century homes.
In turn, the lithographs had as their source images from the illustrations in a French edition of the novel. Thus, it is not the image of Uncle Tom and Eva that makes these vases exclusive; they were available to many people across a broad swath of income who lived in cities or their more economically exclusive suburbs.
Rather, the appearance of this image on an expensive piece of media make these spill vases exclusive possessions. In the s, reading and theatrical audiences immediately would have recognized his pink striped pants as quite suitable for a noble servant such as Tom sometimes artists rendered the stripes in a flowered pattern.
With the sudden popularity of Tom plays intheater troops suddenly had to produce costumes for their Tom characters. Clearly a ragged Jim Crow costume would not do. Therefore, stage productions drew, as Birdhoff explains, from the wardrobe for servants in other popular stage pieces. Because Don Giovanni belonged to the opera and concert repertoire, ceramic painters in the many cities where Don Giovanni and the Tom plays were performed would have been familiar with the Leporello character and his costuming.
By dressing Uncle Tom in his costume, wardrobe mistresses, theater managers, and Limoges decorators made a convenient choice that carried iconographic significance. They decide to attempt to reach Canada.
The Influence Of Little Eva In "Uncle Tom's Cabin" By Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe
However, they are tracked by a slave hunter named Tom Loker. Eventually Loker and his men trap Eliza and her family, causing George to shoot him in the side.
Worried that Loker may die, Eliza convinces George to bring the slave hunter to a nearby Quaker settlement for medical treatment. Back in New OrleansSt. Clare debates slavery with his Northern cousin Ophelia who, while opposing slavery, is prejudiced against black people.
Clare, however, believes he is not biased, even though he is a slave owner. In an attempt to show Ophelia that her views on blacks are wrong, St. Clare purchases Topsy, a young black slave, and asks Ophelia to educate her. After Tom has lived with the St. Clares for two years, Eva grows very ill. Before she dies she experiences a vision of heavenwhich she shares with the people around her. As a result of her death and vision, the other characters resolve to change their lives, with Ophelia promising to throw off her personal prejudices against blacks, Topsy saying she will better herself, and St.
Clare pledging to free Tom. Tom sold to Simon Legree Before St. Clare can follow through on his pledge, however, he dies after being stabbed outside of a tavern. His wife reneges on her late husband's vow and sells Tom at auction to a vicious plantation owner named Simon Legree. Legree a transplanted northerner takes Tom and Emmeline whom Legree purchased at the same time to rural Louisianawhere they meet Legree's other slaves. Cassy, another of Legree's slaves, ministers to Uncle Tom after his whipping.
Legree begins to hate Tom when Tom refuses Legree's order to whip his fellow slave. Legree beats Tom viciously and resolves to crush his new slave's faith in God.
Despite Legree's cruelty, however, Tom refuses to stop reading his Bible and comforting the other slaves as best he can.
While at the plantation, Tom meets Cassy, another of Legree's slaves. Cassy was previously separated from her son and daughter when they were sold; unable to endure the pain of seeing another child sold, she killed her third child. At this point Tom Loker returns to the story. Loker has changed as the result of being healed by the Quakers.
George, Eliza, and Harry have also obtained their freedom after crossing into Canada. In Louisiana, Uncle Tom almost succumbs to hopelessness as his faith in God is tested by the hardships of the plantation. However, he has two visions, one of Jesus and one of Eva, which renew his resolve to remain a faithful Christian, even unto death. He encourages Cassy to escape, which she does, taking Emmeline with her.
As Tom is dying, he forgives the overseers who savagely beat him.
Humbled by the character of the man they have killed, both men become Christians. Very shortly before Tom's death, George Shelby Arthur Shelby's son arrives to buy Tom's freedom but finds he is too late. Final section On their boat ride to freedom, Cassy and Emmeline meet George Harris' sister and accompany her to Canada. Cassy discovers that Eliza is her long-lost daughter who was sold as a child.
Now that their family is together again, they travel to France and eventually Liberiathe African nation created for former American slaves.
George Shelby returns to the Kentucky farm and frees all his slaves. George tells them to remember Tom's sacrifice and his belief in the true meaning of Christianity. Major characters Main article: Uncle Tom, the title character, was initially seen as a noble, long-suffering Christian slave.
In more recent years, however, his name has become an epithet directed towards African-Americans who are accused of selling out to whites. Stowe intended Tom to be a "noble hero"  and praiseworthy person. Throughout the book, far from allowing himself to be exploited, Tom stands up for his beliefs and is grudgingly admired even by his enemies.
Eliza Eliza is a slave and personal maid to Mrs. Shelby who escapes to the North with her five-year-old son Harry after he is sold to Mr. According to Rankin, in February a young slave woman, Eliza Harris, had escaped across the frozen Ohio River to the town of Ripley with her child in her arms and stayed at his house on her way further north. Clare is the daughter of Augustine St. Eva enters the narrative when Uncle Tom is traveling via steamship to New Orleans to be sold, and he rescues the five- or six-year-old girl from drowning.
Eva begs her father to buy Tom, and he becomes the head coachman at the St. He spends most of his time with the angelic Eva. Eva often talks about love and forgiveness, convincing the dour slave girl Topsy that she deserves love. She even touches the heart of her Aunt Ophelia. Eventually Eva falls terminally ill. Before dying, she gives a lock of her hair to each of the slaves, telling them that they must become Christians so that they may see each other in Heaven.
On her deathbed, she convinces her father to free Tom, but because of circumstances the promise never materializes. A similar character, also named Little Eva, later appeared in the children's novel Little Eva: The Flower of the South by Philip J.
Cozans—although this ironically was an anti-Tom novel. He is arguably the novel's main antagonist. His goal is to demoralize Tom and break him of his religious faith; he eventually orders Tom whipped to death out of frustration for his slave's unbreakable belief in God. The novel reveals that, as a young man, he had abandoned his sickly mother for a life at sea and ignored her letter to see her one last time at her deathbed.
He sexually exploits Cassy, who despises him, and later sets his designs on Emmeline. It is unclear if Legree is based on any actual individuals. Reports surfaced after the s that Stowe had in mind a wealthy cotton and sugar plantation owner named Meredith Calhounwho settled on the Red River north of Alexandria, Louisiana. Generally, however, the personal characteristics of Calhoun "highly educated and refined" do not match the uncouthness and brutality of Legree.
Calhoun even edited his own newspaper, published in Colfax originally "Calhoun's Landing"which was renamed The National Democrat after Calhoun's death. However, Calhoun's overseers may have been in line with the hated Legree's methods and motivations. Arthur Shelby — Tom's master in Kentucky. Shelby is characterized as a "kind" slaveowner and a stereotypical Southern gentleman. Emily Shelby — Arthur Shelby's wife. She is a deeply religious woman who strives to be a kind and moral influence upon her slaves and is appalled when her husband sells his slaves with a slave trader.
As a woman, she has no legal way to stop this, as all property belongs to her husband. Chloe — Tom's wife and mother of his children. Clare — Tom's third owner and father of Eva. Clare is complex, often sarcastic, with a ready wit.
After a rocky courtship he marries a woman he grows to hold in contempt, though he is too polite to let it show. Clare recognizes the evil in chattel slavery but is not willing to relinquish the wealth it brings him.
After his daughter's death he becomes more sincere in his religious thoughts and starts to read the Bible to Tom. He plans on finally taking action against slavery by freeing his slaves, but his good intentions ultimately come to nothing.
Clare — Wife of Augustine, she is a self-absorbed woman without a hint of compassion for those around her, including her own family. Given to an unending list of apparently imaginary physical maladies, she continually complains about the lack of sympathy she is receiving.
She has separated her personal maid, Mammy, from her own two children because they would interfere with her duties. As Marie drives Mammy to exhaustion, she criticizes her for selfishly seeking to attend her own family. Upon the unexpected death of Augustine, Marie countermands the legal process that would have given Tom his freedom. George Harris — Eliza's husband. An intelligent and clever half-white slave who is fiercely loyal to his family.
When asked if she knows who made her, she professes ignorance of both God and a mother, saying "I s'pect I growed.