Edward VII of the United Kingdom - New World Encyclopedia
When Queen Victoria died in , Albert Edward became King Edward VII, and . The Queen also gave the young couple unwanted advice on many matters. EDWARD VII (–), King of Great Britain and Ireland and of the From the boy's infancy to his manhood Queen Victoria clung He was chosen instead of the queen's beloved counsellor and .. In January the festivities in honour of his elder sister's marriage with Prince Frederick of Prussia. Queen Victoria restored the reputation of the British monarchy tarnished by the The relationship was a passionate one and Victoria often lost her temper with her new . She accepted the title on the advice of her seventh prime minister Benjamin Her son and heir Edward VII and her grandson Emperor Wilhelm II of .
The Queen made some unwise choices early in her reign as she allowed her emotions to sway her judgement. Victoria believed false pregnancy allegations against her popular lady-in-waiting Lady Flora Hastings, and was booed by the public.
She was also engulfed in a political crisis when the Whig government fell and Lord Melbourne resigned. Tory politician Robert Peel agreed to become prime minister provided Victoria replaced some of her Whig ladies-in-waiting with Tory ones. She refused and reappointed Lord Melbourne. I was very young then and perhaps I should act differently if it was all to be done again.
As head of state she had to propose to him. The couple were married the following year. Victoria wore a large white wedding dress and had a tiered wedding cake.
This started a new tradition among brides who in the past had worn their Sunday best to the ceremony. The relationship was a passionate one and Victoria often lost her temper with her new husband. Albert took on the role of 'moral tutor' to Victoria, which irritated her but meant she relied more heavily on him. He was so kind, so affectionate; oh! Journal entry, 15 October 10 June Victoria survives an assassination attempt A lithograph depicting the first assassination attempt on Victoria. The Queen — who often rode in an open carriage — was the target of eight attempts to kill or assault her during her lifetime.
In the first attempt a teenager called Edward Oxford fired at her as she was out driving with Albert near Buckingham Palace.
The gunman was seized by onlookers. The Queen was shaken but managed to smile at crowds on her return trip through Hyde Park. He was released in and deported to Australia. I saw him aim at me with another pistol. Victoria fell pregnant soon after her wedding and gave birth to her daughter Victoria nine months later. The Queen hated childbirth and suffered postnatal depression. Despite this she had nine children with Albert over 16 years.
The couple bought Balmoral in Scotland and from to Albert supervised the building of a new neo-Gothic castle for the family. Edward told Queen Victoria, "[I would] have given my life for him, as I put no value on mine". Inhis youngest son, Alexander John, had died just 24 hours after being born. Edward had insisted on placing Alexander John in a coffin personally with "the tears rolling down his cheeks". Sipido, though obviously guilty, was acquitted by a Belgian court because he was underage.
However, in the next ten years, Edward's affability and popularity, as well as his use of family connections, assisted Britain in building European alliances. Priestley recalled, "I was only a child when he succeeded Victoria inbut I can testify to his extraordinary popularity. He was in fact the most popular king England had known since the earlier s. However, two days before, on 24 June, he was diagnosed with appendicitis.
Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Treves was honoured with a baronetcy which the King had arranged before the operation  and appendix surgery entered the medical mainstream. Edward refused to bestow the honour on the Shah because the order was meant to be in his personal gift and the Foreign SecretaryLord Lansdownehad promised it without his consent.
Edward also objected to inducting a Muslim into a Christian order of chivalry. His refusal threatened to damage British attempts to gain influence in Persia,  but Edward resented his ministers' attempts to reduce the King's traditional powers.
Fluent in French and German, he reinvented royal diplomacy by numerous state visits across Europe. It marked the end of centuries of Anglo-French rivalry and Britain's splendid isolation from Continental affairs, and attempted to counterbalance the growing dominance of the German Empire and its ally, Austria-Hungary.
Edward doted on his grandchildren, and indulged them, to the consternation of their governesses. Edward's difficult relationship with his nephew exacerbated the tensions between Germany and Britain. In a break with precedent, Edward asked Campbell-Bannerman's successor, H. Asquithto travel to Biarritz to kiss hands. Asquith complied, but the press criticised the action of the King in appointing a prime minister on foreign soil instead of returning to Britain.
Tennantto serve on a Royal Commission on reforming divorce law — Edward thought divorce could not be discussed with "delicacy or even decency" before ladies. Edward's biographer Philip Magnus suggests that Gladstone may have become a whipping-boy for the King's general irritation with the Liberal government. Gladstone was sacked in the reshuffle the following year and the King agreed, with some reluctance, to appoint him Governor-General of South Africa.
Beresford continued his campaign outside of the navy and Fisher ultimately announced his resignation in latealthough the bulk of his policies were retained. During his reign he said use of the word " nigger " was "disgraceful", despite it then being in common parlance. Christendom and European civilisation.
Edward VII - Wikipedia
If the Russians went on giving ground, the yellow race would, in twenty years time, be in Moscow and Posen ". In response, Edward stated that he "could not see it. The Japanese were an intelligent, brave and chivalrous nation, quite as civilised as the Europeans, from whom they only differed by the pigmentation of their skin".
Each made a favourable impression on the other. The prince resumed his residence at Cambridge. He was in London on 31 Oct.
But his studies at Cambridge went forward during the Michaelmas term. The stringent discipline was proving irksome, and he was involuntarily coming to the conclusion, which future experience confirmed, that his sojourns at the two English universities were mistakes. Prince Albert arrived to offer him good counsel. He stayed the night at Madingley Hall.
A chill caught on the Prince Albert's death, 14 Dec. Prince Albert died next day. At his father's funeral in St. George's Chapel on 23 Dec. He joined her the same day at Osborne. At the queen's request he wrote a day or two later a letter publicly identifying himself with her overwhelming anxiety to pay her husband's memory all public honour. On the 28th he offered to place, at his own expense, in the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society, a statue of the prince instead of one of the queen which had already been cast for erection there, by way of memorial of the Great Exhibition of II The sudden death of his father, when the prince was just turned twenty years of Queen Victoria's parental control.
The strict discipline, to which his father had subjected him, had restrained in him every sense of independence and had fostered a sentiment of filial awe.
He wholly shared his mother's faith in the character and attainments of the dead prince. In her husband's lifetime the queen had acknowledged his superior right to control her sons.
But after his death she regarded herself to be under a solemn obligation to fill his place in the family circle and to regulate all her household precisely on the lines which he had followed.
To all arrangements which the prince consort had made for her sons and daughters she resolved loyally to give effect and to devise others in the like spirit. The notion of consulting their views or wishes was foreign to her conception of duty.
Abounding in maternal solicitude, she never ceased to think of the Prince of Wales as a boy to whom she owed parental guidance, the more so because he was fatherless. A main effect of his father's death was consequently to place him, in his mother's view, almost in permanence 'in statu pupillari. Earlier signs were apparent, even in Prince Albert's lifetime, of an uneasy fear on the queen's part that her eldest son might, on reaching manhood, check the predominance which it was her wish that her husband should enjoy as her chief counsellor.
In she had urged on ministers a parliamentary enactment for securing Prince Albert's formal precedence in the state next to herself. Stockmar was asked to press upon her the imprudence of her proposal, and it was with reluctance dropped Fitzmaurice, Lord Oranville. But the episode suggests the limitations which threatened the Prince of Wales's adult public activity. In his mother's sight he was disqualified by his filial relation from filling the place which her husband had held in affairs of state or from relieving her of any political duties.
His mother accurately described her lasting attitude alike to her husband's memory and to her children in a letter to King Leopold 24 Dec. I am also determined that no one person, may he be ever so good, ever so devoted among my servants is to lead or guide or dictate tome' Letters, iii.
The Prince of Wales always treated his mother with affectionate deference and considerate courtesy. Naturally docile, he in his frequent letters to her addressed her up to her death in simple filial style, beginning 'Dear Mama' and ending 'Your affectionate and dutiful son. But on reaching man's estate the prince's views of life broadened.Biography: King Edward VII - Part 1
He travelled far from the rigid traditions in which he had been brought up. Difference of view regarding his official privileges became with the prolongation of his mother's reign inevitable.
The queen was very ready to delegate to him formal and ceremonial labours which were distasteful to her, but she never ceased to ignore his title to any function of government. His place in the royal succession soon seemed to him inconsistent with that perpetual tutelage, from which Queen Victoria deemed it wrong for him to escape in her lifetime.
Open conflict was averted mainly by the prince's placable temper, which made ebullitions of anger of brief duration; but it was a serious disadvantage for him to be denied by the queen any acknowledged responsibility in public affairs for the long period of nearly forty years, which intervened between his father's death and his own accession to the throne.
As soon as the first shock of bereavement passed, Queen Victoria set herself to carry out with scrupulous fidelity two plans which her husband devised for his eldest son's welfare, another foreign tour and his marriage.
The suite included Gen. Bruce, Major Teesdale, Col. The queen's confidence in Stanley was a legacy from her husband, and at her persuasion he somewhat reluctantly agreed to join the party. The prince travelled incognito, and owing to the family mourning it was the queen's wish that ceremonial receptions should as far as possible be dispensed with.
Leaving Osborne on 6 Feb. At Vienna he was introduced to Laurence Oliphant [q. Oliphant readily agreed to act as guide for that part of the expedition. From Trieste, where In Egypt. Stanley joined the party, the royal yacht Osborne brought the prince to Venice, to Corfu, and other places of interest on the passage to Egypt.
Oliphant, who served as cicerone for ten days, wrote that the prince was not studious nor highly intellectual, but up to the average and beyond it in so far as quickness of observation and general intelligence go. Oliphant's Life of L. The prince was on his side attracted by Oliphant, and many years later not only entertained him at Abergeldie but took him to dine at Balmoral with Queen Victoria, who shared her son's appreciation of his exhilarating talk.
The prince disembarked at Alexandria on 24 Feb. Passing to Cairo, he lodged In Egypt. A three weeks' tour was made through upper Egypt. At length on 31 March he arrived in the Holy Land, where no English prince had set foot since Edward I, more than six hundred years before. Jerusalem was thoroughly explored, and the diplomacy of General Bruce gained At Jerusalem. During the tour Stanley succeeded in interesting the prince in the historic traditions of Palestine.
While he was easily amused, he was amenable to good advice, and readily agreed that sporting should be suspended on Sundays. On 15 May the Osborne anchored at the isle of Rhodes. Thence the prince passed to Constantinople, where he stayed at the embassy with Sir Henry Bulwer, ambassador, and was formally entertained in his rank of Prince of Wales by the sultan.
He saw the sights of the city. His host At Constantinople. But he detected a certain danger in an ease of demeanour which at times challenged his dignity and in the desire for amusement. A first sojourn in Athens, where he was to be a frequent visitor, and a landing at Cephallonia brought him to Marseilles. One unhappy incident of the highly interesting journey was the serious illness contracted by General Bruce in the marshes of the upper Jordan.
He managed with difficulty to reach London, but there he died on 27 June The prince was thus deprived finally of the close surveillance which his father had deemed needful to his welfare. While the court was still in deep mourning the marriage of his second sister, Princess Alice, to Prince Louis of Hesse-Darmstadt took place at Windsor on 1 July The International Exhibition ofwhich the prince consort had designed, had been duly opened in May by the duke of Cambridge, to whom much court ceremonial was for the time delegated by Queen Victoria.
The prince inspected the exhibition in the summer and received with charming grace the foreign visitors to one of whom, General do Galliffet, he formed a lifelong attachment. But the queen's chief pre-occupation was the scheme for the prince's The coming marriage.
Assent was readily given. On the journey she stayed with her uncle Leopold at his palace of Laeken, near Brussels. Her future daughter-in-law was with her father on a visit to Ostend, and Princess Alexandra came over to Laeken to meet Queen Victoria for the first time. The queen left for Coburg on 4 Sept. On the same date the prince set out to meet his mother and to begin what proved another long continental tour.
On the 7th he arrived at Brussels, and paid his respects to Princess Alexandra at Ostend. Both were summoned by King Leopold to the palace The betrothal 9 Sept Next day they went over the battlefield of Waterloo together, and in the evening they attended a court banquet which King Leopold gave in their honour. They travelled together to Cologne, where they parted, and the prince joined his mother at Coburg.
The engagement was made public on 16 Sept. It was stated that the marriage 'privately settled at Brussels' was 'based entirely upon mutual affection and the personal merits of the princess,' and was 'in no way connected with political considerations,' 'The revered Prince Consort, whose sole object was the education and welfare of his children, had,' the message continued, 'been long convinced that this was a most desirable marriage.
The announcement was received in England with enthusiasm. The youth and beauty of the princess and her association with Denmark appealed to popular sympathies. In spite of the queen's warning, a political colour was given to the match in diplomatic circles. Prussia and Austria were steadily pushing forward their designs on the Schleswig-Holstein provinces which Denmark claimed.
Public feeling in England, which favoured the Danish pretensions, was stimulated. In Germany it was openly argued that the queen and prince consort had betrayed the German cause. Although the match was wholly arranged by their kindred, it roused a mutual affection in the prince and princess.
But they saw little of each other before their marriage. There and at Windsor she remained three weeks, spending much of her time alone with the queen. By Queen Victoria's wish the prince was out of the country during his bride's stay. On leaving Coburg he had invited his sister and her husband, the crown prince and princess of Prussia, to accompany him on a Mediterranean tour on the yacht Osborne.
They embarked at Marseilles on 22 Oct. A most interesting itinerary was followed. A first experience of the Riviera was obtained by a The prince's foreign tour, Nov.
Palermo, the capital of Sicily, was visited, and thence a passage was made to Tunis, where the ruins of Carthage were explored. Owing to an accident to the paddle-wheel of the royal yacht, the vessel was towed by the frigate Doris from the African coast to Malta.
There was some incongruity in celebrating so interesting an anniversary in a foreign country. Yet the experience was not out of harmony with the zest for travel and for foreign society which was born of the extended and varied wanderings of his youth.
Before leaving southern Italy he ascended Vesuvius, and on the return journey to England he revisited Rome. From Florence he made his way through Germany by slow stages. At Lille on 3 Dec. He reached home on 13 Dec. By far the greater part of the year had been spent abroad on three continents America, Asia, and Europe. Although he was barely turned one and twenty, the prince was probably the best travelled man in the world. There was small chance that he should cultivate in adult life any narrow insularity.
A separate establishment was already in course of formation at home. On reaching The prince's income. The duchy of Cornwall was his appanage, and provided a large revenue. Owing to the careful administration of the prince consort the income of the duchy had risen from 16,l. The receipts had been allowed to accumulate during his minority, and these were now reckoned to amount to ,l. Out of these savings, the sum of ,l. The transaction was carried out in The existing house proved unsuitable and was soon rebuilt.
A London house was provided officially. Marlborough House had reverted to the crown in on the lapse of the great duke of Marlborough's long lease. It had since been lent to the Dowager Queen Adelaide, widow of William IV, on whose death in it was employed as a government art school and picture gallery.
In it was decided to fit it up as a residence for the Prince of Wales. During it was thoroughly remodelled, and in was ready for his occupation. For the next three months preparations for his marriage absorbed his own and the country's attention.
Simultaneously with The first household. Herbert Fisher, his Oxford tutor, who had resumed his work at the bar, was recalled to act as private secretary, and he held the office till Wood was a very early companion, and all save Earl Spencer, General Knollys, and Lord Alfred Hervey had been closely associated with the prince already.
The queen refused to relax her habit of seclusion, and on 25 Feb.
He held a levee in her behalf at St. The presentations exceededand severely tested his capacity for the fatigue of court routine. At a drawing-room which followed at Buckingham Palace 28 Feb. Parliament opened on 5 Feb. He was introduced by the dukes of Cambridge and Newcastle. He showed his interest in the proceedings by staying till half-past nine at night to listen to the debate, which chiefly dealt with the cession of the Ionian islands to Greece, The queen was absent. Her speech from the throne, which had been read by the lord chancellor at the opening of the session, announced the conclusion of her son's marriage treaty, which had been signed at Copenhagen on 10 Jan.
The prime minister, Lord Palmerston, informed the House of Commons that the marriage might 'in the fullest sense of the word be called a love match' and was free of any political intention Hansard, Commons Report, 5 Feb. A few days later a message from the queen invited the House of Commons to make pecuniary provision for the bridegroom. Parliament on the motion of Palmerston granted him an annuity of 40,l. At the same time an annuity of Advanced liberals raised the issue that the revenues of the duchy of Cornwall supplied the prince with an adequate income, and that parliament was under no obligation to make addition to it.
It was complained, too, that public money had been voted to the prince on his creation as K. But Gladstone defended the government's proposal, and the resolutions giving it effect were carried nem.
The grant finally passed the House of Commons without a division. No other of Queen Victoria's appeals to parliament for pecuniary grants to her children enjoyed the same good fortune. The marriage was fixed for 10 March. The princess left Copenhagen on 26 Feb. On 7 March the prince met his bride on her arrival at Gravesend.
Travelling by railway to the Bricklayers' Arms, Southwark, they made a triumphal progress through the City of London to Paddington. The six carriages, headed by a detachment of life-guards, seemed to many onlookers a mean pageant, but a surging mass of people greeted the couple with boundless delight cf.
Louis Blanc's Lettres sur l'Angleterre, 2nd ser. At times the pressure of the enthusiastic mob caused the princess alarm. From Paddington they went by railway to Slough, and drove thence to Windsor. The The wedding, 10 March. Queen Victoria in widow's weeds overlooked the proceedings from a gallery. Kingsley, who attended as royal chaplain, admired 'the serious, reverent dignity of my dear young master, whose manner was perfect.
The short honeymoon was spent at Osborne. On 17 March the prince and princess were back at Windsor, and on the 20th they held a court at St. James's Palace in honour of the event.
At Marlborough Public engagements. House they received an almost endless series of congratulatory addresses. Numerous festivities and entertainments followed, and the prince's social experience widened. On 2 May he attended for the first time the banquet of the Royal Academy. He bad hardly spoken in public before, and tie had learnt by heart a short speech. His memory momentarily failed him and he nearly broke down. The accident led him to rely henceforth in his public utterances on the inspiration of the moment.
He mastered the general idea beforehand but not the words. His tact and native kindliness stood him in good stead, and he soon showed as an occasional speaker a readiness of delivery and a grace of compliment which few of his contemporaries excelled. Lord Houghton, who was a past master in the same art, judged the prince to be only second to himself.
The corporation of the City of London presented the prince with the freedom on 7 June, and gave a ball in honour of himself and his bride on the same evening at the Guildhall. He had already identified himself with civic life by accepting the freedom of the Fishmongers' Company on 12 Feb.
A second City company, the Merchant Taylors', paid him a like compliment on 11 June. In this busy month of June the prince and princess went, too, to Oxford to take part in the pleasures of Commemoration. A year later similar experiences awaited the prince and princess at Cambridge during May week.
They stayed in the royal apartments at Trinity College, and the prince received the honorary degree of LL. Meanwhile a sumptuous ball given by the guards regiment in the exhibition building at South Kensington on 26 June brought the gaieties of their first season to an end.
The prince's married life was mainly spent at Marlborough House. Nor was his habit of foreign travel long interrupted. Part of the early spring was soon regularly devoted to Cannes or Nice in the Riviera, and part of the early autumn to Homburg, while tours on a larger scale were not infrequent. Outside London his career for the most part resembled that of any man of wealth and high station.
At Sandringham the prince until his death spent seven or eight weeks each year, living the life of a private country gentleman. The first Easter after Sandringham rebuilt, He interested himself in his tenants, and maintained his cottages in admirable repair.
On every detail in the management of the estate he kept a watchful eye. The furniture and decorations of the house, the gardens, the farm, the stables, the kennels, were all under his personal care. For his His love of animals. The stables were always well filled. In the kennels at Sandringham were representatives of almost every breed. He was an exhibitor of dogs at shows from 27 Mayand was patron of the Kennel Club from its formation in April He actively identified himself with the sport of the county.
For some twelve years he hunted with the West Norfolk hounds, at times with the princess for his companion, but after he abandoned hunting, both at home and on visits to friends. Shooting at Sandringham gradually took its place as the prince's main sport. To his shooting parties were invited his Norfolk neighbours as well as his intimate circle of associates. He reared pheasants and partridges assiduously, profiting by useful advice from his neighbour, Thomas William Coke, earl of Leicester, of Holkham.
Partridge-driving grew to be his favourite sporting recreation. He was a variable and no first-rate shot, but was successful with high pheasants. Victoria lent him Abergeldie Castle, on Deeside near Balmoral, which she had leased in for sixty years. He varied his sojourn there by visits to Scottish noblemen, with one of whom, the duke of Sutherland, he formed an intimate friendship. The duke's mother was a beloved associate of Queen Victoria, and at the ducal seat, Dunrobin Castle, the prince was a frequent guest.
In Scotland the prince's chief sports were grouse-shooting and deerstalking. He had killed his first stag on 21 Sept. Fishing never attracted him. But he was always fond of the sea, and his early life on the Isle of Wight made him an eager yachtsman.