Philosophy of space and time - Wikipedia
Einstein, Relativity and the Space-time Continuum - The space-time continuum describes how space and time are relative and how objects in motion experience . The theory explains the behavior of objects in space and time, and it can or how it experiences time, it's always in relation to something else. The theory of special relativity explains how space and time are linked for objects that are moving at a consistent speed in a straight line. One of.
Space - Wikipedia
A Simple Ultimate Theory? Indeed, the history of physics so far might make us doubtful—because it seems as if whenever we learn more, things just get more complicated, at least in terms of the mathematical structures they involve. But—as noted, for example, by early theologians—one very obvious feature of our universe is that there is order in it. But just how simple might the ultimate theory for the universe be? How long would the program be? Would it be as long as the human genome, or as the code for an operating system?
Or would it be much, much smaller?
But what I discovered is that in the computational universe even extremely simple programs can actually show behavior as complex as anything a fact embodied in my general Principle of Computational Equivalence.
So then the question arises: The Data Structure of the Universe But what would such a program be like?
One thing is clear: Somehow all these things have to emerge from something much lower level and more fundamental. But even though such a structure works well for models of many thingsit seems at best incredibly implausible as a fundamental model of physics.
I thought about this for years, and looked at all sorts of computational and mathematical formalisms. A network—or graph —just consists of a bunch of nodes, joined by connections. Space as a Network So could this be what space is made of?
But do we in fact know that space is continuous like this? In the early days of quantum mechanics, it was actually assumed that space would be quantized like everything else. But what if space—perhaps at something like the Planck scale—is just a plain old network, with no explicit quantum amplitudes or anything?
But how could this be what space is made of? First of all, how could the apparent continuity of space on larger scales emerge? On a small scale, there are a bunch of discrete molecules bouncing around.
But the large-scale effect of all these molecules is to produce what seems to us like a continuous fluid. It so happens that I studied this phenomenon a lot in the mids—as part of my efforts to understand the origins of apparent randomness in fluid turbulence.
Einstein's Theory of Special Relativity
What about all the electrons, and quarks and photons, and so on? In the usual formulation of physics, space is a backdrop, on top of which all the particles, or strings, or whatever, exist. But that gets pretty complicated.
As it happens, in his later years, Einstein was quite enamored of this idea. He thought that perhaps particles, like electrons, could be associated with something like black holes that contain nothing but space. But within the formalism of General Relativity, Einstein could never get this to work, and the idea was largely dropped. That was a time before Special Relativity, when people still thought that space was filled with a fluid-like ether. Meanwhile, it had been understood that there were different types of discrete atoms, corresponding to the different chemical elements.
And so it was suggested notably by Kelvin that perhaps these different types of atoms might all be associated with different types of knots in the ether. It was an interesting idea. Maybe all that has to exist in the universe is the network, and then the matter in the universe just corresponds to particular features of this network. Even though every cell follows the same simple rules, there are definite structures that exist in the system—and that behave quite like particles, with a whole particle physics of interactions.
Back in the s, there was space and there was time. Both were described by coordinates, and in some mathematical formalisms, both appeared in related ways. It makes a lot of sense in the formalism of Special Relativity, in which, for example, traveling at a different velocity is like rotating in 4-dimensional spacetime.
So how does that work in the context of a network model of space? And then one just has to say that the history of the universe corresponds to some particular spacetime network or family of networks. Which network it is must be determined by some kind of constraint: But this seems very non-constructive: And, for example, in thinking about programs, space and time work very differently.
In a cellular automaton, for example, the cells are laid out in space, but the behavior of the system occurs in a sequence of steps in time. How does this network evolve? But now things get a bit complicated. Because there might be lots of places in the network where the rule could apply. So what determines in which order each piece is handled? This cosmic speed limit has been a subject of much discussion in physics, and even in science fiction, as people think about how to travel across vast distances.
The theory of special relativity was developed by Albert Einstein inand it forms part of the basis of modern physics. After finishing his work in special relativity, Einstein spent a decade pondering what would happen if one introduced acceleration. This formed the basis of his general relativitypublished in History Before Einstein, astronomers for the most part understood the universe in terms of three laws of motion presented by Isaac Newton in These three laws are: For a constant mass, force equals mass times acceleration.
But there were cracks in the theory for decades before Einstein's arrival on the scene, according to Encyclopedia Britannica.
InScottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell demonstrated that light is a wave with both electrical and magnetic components, and established the speed of lightmiles per second. Scientists supposed that the light had to be transmitted through some medium, which they called the ether. We now know that no transmission medium is required, and that light in space moves in a vacuum. Twenty years later, an unexpected result threw this into question. Michelson and chemist Edward Morley both Americans at the time calculated how Earth's motion through this "ether" affected how the speed of light is measured, and found that the speed of light is the same no matter what Earth's motion is.
This led to further musings on light's behavior — and its incongruence with classical mechanics — by Austrian physicist Ernst Mach and French mathematician Henri Poincare. Einstein began thinking of light's behavior when he was just 16 years old, in He did a thought experiment, the encyclopedia said, where he rode on one light wave and looked at another light wave moving parallel to him.
Classical physics should say that the light wave Einstein was looking at would have a relative speed of zero, but this contradicted Maxwell's equations that showed light always has the same speed: Another problem with relative speeds is they would show that the laws of electromagnetism change depending on your vantage point, which contradicted classical physics as well which said the laws of physics were the same for everyone.
This led to Einstein's eventual musings on the theory of special relativity, which he broke down into the everyday example of a person standing beside a moving train, comparing observations with a person inside the train. It can be understood that the concept power is the ability to do or act -a person has the power to act accordingly to his instincts, he has this power. It refers also to the political or national strength found in most global states - so to speak of the power of a state or a nation.
Finally, it can also be the possession of control or command over others, it is the delegated authority, the legal authority -this authority has the power to introduce new rules of discipline.
Whereof it can also be added that there is the power that one gets at the advantage of controlling rather than the detriment to obey. Since the topic of this paper is the relationship between power and space, it is essential to give a definition of the word space and the concepts attached to its meaning. Space is an extent or expanse of a surface or three-dimensional area, thus the sufficient freedom from external pressure to develop or explore one's needs, interests, and individuality, those are both relevant for the present work.
In everyday life, man's practice of space is encouraged and provoked by the use of three dimensional area that emerges before him, this implies his right and duty. In spite of himself however he is required to submit to the rules, laws and other forms of authority that he has been taught during most of his time at school and throughout his personal development.
This is how he becomes a prisoner of his own impulses in a given space to meet the ethical codes and standards imposed by the surrounding society. Fortunately, he who seeks finds loopholes in those chains, Michel de Certeau for instance indicates that 'to be lifted to the summit of the World Trade Centre is to be lifted out of the city's grasp' 1, therefore where is to be found the relationship between the rules of society and the space this same society offers to individuals?
Law is in force only in its contribution to the maintenance of order in society, without this power it is possible to consider havoc and chaos. Who is considered to be the object? The people of course, like obeying to anonymous laws, they are like marionettes with the incapacity to know who plays with the handles, blinded to know who makes the rules, who is the player moving the ponds.
French philosopher Jean Baudrillard aware of this phenomenon emphasises the idea that power is attributed by who pronounces it. He takes example in psychoanalysis stating 'who made you a psychoanalyst? Thus is expressed, by an inverse simulation, the passage from the "analysed" to the "analysant," from passive to active, which simply describes the spiralling effect of the shifting of poles'2.
So we can bring together the relationship of power with the use of language. It is also by the illusion of greatness or by acquiring a significant number of goods that one can obtain the idea of superiority at the expense of other.
The World Trade Centre being 'the most monumental figure of the Western urban development' 3 at the time illustrates perfectly this American ideology here presented.
So what are the kind of spaces left from these superpowers whom are building in an illusory hope of dominion. Under Michel de Certeau's approach we can think of 'The production of its own space un espace propre: An utopian tyranny or rather a dystopian dream perhaps. Is it not essential to be actor of disturbances. In a sense, 'these advertising laser sculptures in the empty space'5 represent a disturbance, first by their physicality in the visual spectrum and secondly by the abundance of their capitalist messages and finally by their unnatural aspects.General Relativity & Curved Spacetime Explained! - Space Time - PBS Digital Studios
These messages, lest we forget are only focused on economical profit, on consumerism which is only an illusion, a smoked screen on the many dreams of modern capitalism.
The production and handling of these physical areas result in the creation of more power which in turn causes the production of these spaces, it is the endless cycle of the snake biting its own tail. This manipulative power is omnipresent in most institutions, the child is placed in school spaces which will persist until the end of his days, only with different appellations.
At school, the establishment offers him the phantasm of freewill and choice, but is it, really? It is a paradoxical choice of the many association of modern capitalism.
The farmer, environmentalist and writer Pierre Rabhi succeeds to explain this process when he says that This modern system of radical materialism, which gave the lucre absolute power, I [he] quickly perceived as a total alienation locked from kindergarten to university, is housed in boxes stacked, working in small or large boxes companyone moves with his box auto ; go for fun, we go out in a box disco.
And everything until the last box where no one comes out. A power or even a force applies a constant pressure on the choice of his motions, this force is empowered by fear and dissuasion which once more are established tools that we are going to examine with Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish later.
Power controls space, De Certeau reinforces the idea of 'the networks of surveillance' which constitute 'regulations and surreptitious creativities that are merely 2Jean Baudrillard, Simulacra and Simulation, p.
What Is Spacetime, Really?
Any area of interest, activity or industry is subject to the transformation of man into a bar code, a number or a card, all these aspects are effective for a better 'managing, differentiating, classifying, and hierarchizing' 7 of man, only with the expectation of being able to govern over him. However it is credible to grasp a glimpse of the simulacrum present in everyday life, an individual in his 'operation of walking, wandering, or "window shopping"' thinks of himself as being free, could be true perhaps but he is also and foremost probably unaware a part of the 'points that draw a totalizing and reversible line on the map.
They allow us to grasp only a relic set in the nowhen of a surface of projection', is it a simulation of reality? Those who hold the strings are playing, like in a Truman Show or other Macchiavelic Big Brother, whom we call 'they' conceive spaces to keep individuals under control, to keep things in order, 'they' have created a gigantic playtable, this society is one of distraction.