Biology for Kids: The Disease Cancer
We don't know the exact cause of most colorectal cancers, but a great deal DNA is the chemical in our cells that makes up our genes, which. Mitosis is the process of cells growing and dividing, hence replicating themselves . Cancer is simply uncontrolled cell division. In the cell, mitosis. The abnormalities in cancer cells usually result from mutations in protein- encoding genes cell growth. About thirty percent of tumors — including lung, colon, .. a consistent correlation between exposure to an agent and the occurrence of a.
Interestingly, many of these compounds also induced mitotic arrest. To gain insight into the mechanisms of action of these compounds, we studied the structure-activity relationship of a particularly promising class of piperazine-based compounds.
Here we report a structure-activity relationship study of this class of compounds and identify a highly active derivative, AK Furthermore, we show that AK hampers tubulin polymerization, triggers the formation of multiple microtubule organizing centers MTOCs2 and increases the surface expression of TNFR1.
Lastly, AK was found to be more effective in sensitizing cancer cells to TNF-induced apoptosis than other known microtubule-destabilizing agents. We propose that AK and its derivatives represent a novel class of microtubule-targeting compounds that will be useful for studying the relationship between microtubule dynamics and apoptosis sensitivity.
This class of compounds may also have beneficial therapeutic properties because of their ability to sensitize cancer cells to ligand-induced apoptosis. Floating and adherent cells were combined and analyzed by flow cytometry. The data were analyzed using FlowJo version 9. Cell Viability Assay Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue exclusion assay. After treatment, the cells were incubated with trypan blue at room temperature. Appropriate secondary antibodies Jackson ImmunoResearch were used for 45 min of incubation.
Images were acquired using a Nikon A1R confocal microscope version 2.
Mitotic Origins of Chromosomal Instability in Colorectal Cancer
Quantification of immunostaining was performed using ImageJ image analysis software as described previously Following background subtraction and image stacking, both DAPI and immunofluorescence images were merged. Whole Cell Microtubule Analysis Microtubules in whole cells were analyzed by flow cytometry as described previously Cells were cultured in well plates for 24—36 h and treated with the colchicine, AK, or AK for 16 h.
Cell pellets were resuspended and fixed with 0. Finally, cells were pelleted by centrifugation and treated with 0.
The cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. All steps in this protocol were carried out at room temperature. Water molecules, ligands, and other heteroatoms were removed from the protein molecules using Accelrys Discovery studio client version 3.
Addition of hydrogen atoms to the protein was performed using MGLTools version 1. For each known ligand type, grid maps were generated that corresponded to their respective known binding sites on tubulin.
What Causes Colorectal Cancer?
Generally, the docking parameters were left to the default settings. However, the grid spacing was changed from 0. The internal scoring function was used to assess receptor-ligand interactions in five independent runs. Additionally, Molegro Virtual Docker software version 6. Charges for both tubulin and the ligands were calculated by Molegro Virtual Docker and assigned to their respective models. Moreover, probable explicit hydrogens were added to tubulin as well as the ligands, possible missing bonds were assigned, and side chain minimization was performed.
Finally, flexible torsions were manually applied to the ligands.
Linking Nucleoporins, Mitosis, and Colon Cancer
Because tubulin is a relatively large protein, a molecular surface was created using Molegro Virtual Docker workspace grid points, and the top three cavities were identified using the expanded van der Waals method for the molecular surface with volumes ranging from 5 to 10, cubic units and default settings. To perform docking, the cavity containing the colchicine-binding domain was used with a radius of 20 to cover the entire cavity.
However, if the right series of mutations occur, the cells will begin to grow uncontrollably. Types of Cancer Cancer is really a term used to describe a number of different diseases. There are more than different types of cancer. Typically, cancers are named after the place in the body where the cancer first began. For example, lung cancer is cancer that started in the lungs.
There are then different types of lung cancers with long scientific names such as "well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the lung" and "small cell carcinoma of the lung. It is much more common in women than in men. Colon cancer - Cancer of the colon, which is part of the large intestine. Leukemia - Cancer of the blood that often starts in the bone marrow. Lymphoma - Cancer of the white blood cells that help to form the immune system.
It is often found in the lymph nodes, the spleen, or the blood marrow. Lung cancer - Cancer of the lungs.How does colon cancer metastasize?
It is most commonly, but not always, caused by smoking. Melanoma - Cancer of the skin or other pigmented areas like the eye. It is often caused by too much exposure to the Sun's harmful rays. Pancreatic cancer - Cancer that forms in the pancreas organ.
Prostate cancer - Cancer that forms in the prostate. Only men have prostates and typically get this cancer when they are older.
Typical Symptoms There are so many different types of cancer, that there are many different symptoms. However, the American Cancer Society gives seven common symptoms that can be warnings of cancer.
How are cancer and mitosis related?
A sore that doesn't heal or get better like normal. A change in the size, shape, color, or thickness of a mole or other sore.
Difficulty in swallowing or a constant upset stomach. Change in bladder or bowel habits. Any type of constant or unusual bleeding. Any thick lump or growth. A constant cough or scratchy throat. Treatments Many forms of cancer can be treated and even cured.