Evolution - Image Gallery - Grouper fish and cleaner fish
This Symbiotic Relationship between the Cleaner Wrasse and the other fish is on many reef fish (parrotfish, reef sharks, moray eels, groupers, damsel fish. Instructional Component Type(s): Lesson Plan, Worksheet, Educational Game, Presentation/ algae-commensalism; cleaner fish & grouper fish-mutualism;. Clown fish and Anemones also exhibit mutualism. The clown A perfect example of cleaning behavior is the Cleaner Shrimp and the Grouper.
The Boxer crab carries a pair of anemones in its claws. When predators approach the Boxer crab it waves the anemones, which present their stinging tentacles. The Boxer crab gets protection and the anemones get the partials of food that are dropped by the crab. Clown fish and Anemones also exhibit mutualism. The clown fish receives protection from the anemones while the anemones receive food drawn by the clownfish.
The third type of symbiosis is parasitism. Parasitism is a symbiotic relationship in which one species, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host. There are two types of parasitism, ectoparasitism and endoparasitism.
Ectoparasitism is where the parasite is external and endoparasites live inside the body of the host, such as viruses, bacteria, flatworms, roundworms and leeches. An example of an ecotoparasitism relationship is the Fish Doctor and fish. The Fish Doctor, a type of isopod crustacean, will attach itself under the fins, scales, or gills of a fish. It then sucks the blood of the host fish until it dies. An example of an endoparasitism relationship is the pearl fish and sea cucumbers.
The pearl fish is a type of mesoparasite. It detects chemicals given off by the sea cucumber and enters the sea cucumber when it participates in gas exchange and breaths in water. The sea cucumber attempts to eject the pearl fish by expelling most of their digestive tract out through their anus. This can be detrimental for the sea cucumber.
Organisms use symbiosis in many different ways to accomplish a variety of life activities.
These activities include defense, cleaning, transportation, food, housing, and camouflage. Symbiosis is commonly used as a method of defense. The symbionts select hosts with better defense mechanisms then they have. An example of this behavior exists between the Carrier Crab and Urchins.
The Carrier Crab is highly creative in locating defenses.
This species will carry urchins on their back for protection as it crosses the sea floor. The urchins prefer a solitary existence but are not harmed by this activity.
Symbiosis is commonly used for the purpose of cleaning. This is where large fish will go to the places where symbionts, the cleaner shrimp and fish, live.
Biology Unit 3: Living Together - Symbiosis and Social Behaviour
The cleaners pick off parasites, algae, and detritus from the larger fish, obtaining a meal from the cleaning process. In doing so, the cleaner fish attains a meal, without being eaten by their usual predators and the larger fish receives the service of having harmful parasites removed.
It is believed that the ecological relationships that exist between cleaner fish such as the bluehead wrasse, Thalassoma bifasciatum, the sharknose goby, Gobiosoma genie, and the Spanish hogfish, Bodianus rufus, and their various hosts are crucial to the overall functioning and survival of the host due to the increasing awareness of the role parasitism is playing in the mortality rates of reef fishes Panek Sponges are important creatures due to the immense number of collaborative associations in which they participate.
One such association exists between sponges and mangrove roots. The relation between the red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, and the root-fouling sponge, Tedania ignis, provides the sponge with organic carbon produced by the mangrove and the mangrove exhibits enhanced growth due to the uptake of excretory nitrogen from the sponge Davy et.
Tedania ignis is also benefited by the relationship with the mangrove because it enables the sponge to resist predation by Oreaster Wulff Studies also showed that when sponges were transported from mangrove forests to the reef they were quickly eaten by parrotfish so the protection provided by the mangrove environment is critical for the survival of many species of sponge Dunlap et.
The interaction between the goby, Nes longus and Ctenogobius saepepallens, and the snapping shrimp, Alpheus floridanus, at first appeared, to many scientists, to be one in which the shrimp made burrows while the goby fish did nothing. Now that the relationship is known, we understand that the shrimp will excavate burrows and the goby fish will reside at the entrance. When the snapping shrimp exits the burrow, the shrimp will actually remain in contact with the fish with its antennae and depending on the species of goby the fish will either give a signal of approaching danger by darting head first into the burrow or by rapidly fluttering its caudal fin indicating the approach of a predator Randall et al.
Through this mutualism the goby fish receives a free place to hide from potential predators and in return the shrimp receives a look-out so that it may safely hunt for food. In conclusion, mutualistic relationships in coral reefs play a more vital role than many realize. Without the dynamic interplay between these microbial associates, many inferior creatures, such as coral and algae, that provide the reef with a habitat complexity upon which thousands of species depend, may not exist.
It can even be said that this mutualism seen is underappreciated by most, because without this mutualistic partnership these sessile organisms would be outcompeted and would not play the role they do in structuring marine communities Stachowicz et.
Dynamics within mutualism and the maintenance of diversity: Ecology Letters, 2 1 Retrieved May 11, Ammonium excretion by a symbiotic sponge supplies the nitrogen requirements of its rhodophyte partner.
The Journal of Experimental Biology, Retrieved May 10,from http: Marine Ecology, 19 4 Reef corals bleach to resist stress.
Marine Pollution Bulletin, 58 2 Reviews in Fisheries Science, 13 1 Environmental Biology of Fishes, 74 2 Metabolic integration during the evolutionary origin of mitochondria. Cell Research, 13, Jane Goodall 18 Activity 9: Chimpanzee behaviour and expressions see separate pdf file 19 Activity Chimpanzee hierarchy see separate pdf file 20 Activity Social behaviour continuum 21 Activity Split into 5 groups.
Each group must put one of the following headings onto the poster. You have 3 minutes to add as much detail to this poster as you can. Repeat until back at first poster. Each group must take a turn to feedback to the whole group from the poster they started with.
Symbiosis card sort Instructions 1. Print out following pages and cut into individual cards with a matching picture. Make three categories to place cards into; parasitism, mutualism, social behaviour. Read out statement 2. The bacteria get a constant source of moisture and food. The bacteria get a stable habitat to live in temperature and pH.
Biology Unit 3: Living Together - Symbiosis and Social Behaviour
The bacteria break down cellulose. Without the bacteria the cow would not be able to break down the grass cell walls. Mr Fraser gives the dog food and water whenever it is needed.
Oscar makes Mr Fraser very happy. Some species of shrimp live with a fish called a goby. The shrimp digs a house by moving sand around. The goby lives in the house the shrimp digs out. The shrimp is blind and uses its feelers to check the goby is nearby. If the goby notices danger and retreats into the home the shrimp does too. A hermit crab is able to carry an anemone on its back. The anemone is put there by the crab. The weight of the anemone makes it harder for the crab to move around. Food scraps from the crab can get to the anemone.
The anemone will stop an octopus from eating the crab. A tick is a small invertebrate that can live on larger animals. Here it feeds on blood from the organism. The blood is stored in an expandable pouch on the tick. The organism loses blood and may get an infection, eg Lyme disease in humans. Most will never get to breed. They can get more food by working cooperatively. The colony will die if each type of ant does not do its job. Since the ants are closely related, similar genes will be passed on.
Bodungo chimps are social animals. Chimps form close relationships with each other. By being in a group they share food and resources. A young male is unlikely to become the most dominant male in the group. By living together as a large group the troop is likely to be successful and their genes will be passed on. It is caused by a protist. Mosquitoes carry protists for part of their lifecycle.
The mosquito transfers the protist when feeding on human blood. The protist needs both vectors to complete its lifecycle. Birds frequently live in trees. They use parts of an old tree to make their nests. The bird gains an advantage of a home to live in. The tree gains little from the relationship, maybe some fertiliser.
The bird does nothing to harm the tree.
Types of symbiosis There are two basic types of symbiosis. Remember that symbiosis is the relationship between two organisms of different species that benefits one or both organisms: Decide which type of symbiosis is described in each sentence below. A tick living on a dog. A bird building its nest in a tree.
A hermit crab carrying a sea anemone on its back. A bristle worm living with the hermit crab. Head lice living on a human scalp. Mistletoe putting its roots into its host tree.
Ants and an acacia tree living together and both receiving benefit. Bees and a flower. Bacteria living in the intestines of a cow to help it break down cellulose.
A clownfish and a sea anemone. A sixth-year student and their pet. A rhino and a tick bird. Lichen — a composite organism of a fungus and an alga that benefits both.