Affective Teacher—Student Relationships and Students' Externalizing Behavior Problems: A . When articles could not be found online, we obtained full-text versions of articles from libraries. Ken Cramer, University of Windsor, Canada . Positive teacher-student relationships are socially contagious. Students who International Journal of Educational Research 43, This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Education and understanding of the student-teacher relationship from the perspective of the fifth And Saul (), who interviewed two distinct groups of Canadian students.
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Importantly, Taylor found that when rejected children had positive relationships with teachers, they experienced less victimization by their peers. This research points to the importance of teachers monitoring their own behaviours towards students, especially towards students who may already experience peer rejection and victimization. Many teachers are familiar with popular anti-bullying programs that prioritize bullying awareness-raising, including educating teachers about the signs and risks of bullying and strategies for how to intervene.
In addition to ongoing training that helps teachers to feel confident when implementing bullying prevention programming, we contend that it is perhaps equally critical for teachers to be mindful of their relationships with students. To encourage this awareness, we argue that teachers should receive support and training to: We provide a short discussion of each of these suggestions below. Teachers who are highly attuned to peer group affiliations in the classroom will use their knowledge to directly impact peer level processes.
This is often seen through the organizing of seating charts and working groups that promote positive social outcomes for students.
Linking Teacher-Student Relationships and Children’s Bullying Experiences
These teachers are also receptive to relevant cues in the classroom that indicate status hierarchies and inequalities. This information allows teachers to anticipate aggression in the classroom. That way, teachers can avoid making false perceptions about social dynamics in the classroom.
This is important so that students are not negatively impacted by the actions of teachers on the basis of incorrect perceptions. Many of these skills are taught in a variety of professional helping professions such as counselling and are considered vital to all caregiving professional interactions, including teachers e.
The Changing Teacher / Student Relationship -- THE Journal
Many of the skills that contribute to effective interactions between teachers and students can be, and often ought to be, learned and refined. Teacher education programs are a venue for offering this training; both authors of this article have taught a teacher education course called Counselling Applications for Teachers.
This course specifically addresses relationship skills, relying on a variety of experiential and reflective activities. Pre-service teachers in this course observe videos and live demonstrations with the professor as well as participate in break-out activities with classmates to practise the specific skills. In addition to pre-service training, practising teachers should receive professional development opportunities to continue to develop their effective communication skills. These skills can be used to promote caring classrooms and can be specifically utilized to help to intervene in a variety of interpersonal conflicts, including bullying incidents.
These intervention strategies, strengthened by positive teacher-student relationships, may contribute to creating classrooms with prosocial norms in which students also feel confident intervening themselves in bullying episodes. This feedback was presented differently for each of our four treatment groups: In our control group, neither students nor teachers received feedback on what they had in common. Only students learned five things they had in common with their teacher.
Only teachers learned five things they had in common with their students. Both students and teachers learned of five things they had in common. Teachers and students who learned that they shared commonalities with their counterpart perceived greater degrees of similarity. Teachers who learned that they shared commonalities with their students perceived more positive relationships. Finally, students earned higher grades when teachers learned about their similarities to those students.
Improving achievement of underserved students Our initial analyses also led to another intriguing finding. We examined white and Asian students separately from students who have been historically underserved — primarily black and Latino students. Specifically, the grades of underserved students, which were typically less than a B- went up to about an average of a B.
It seems possible that redirecting attention toward those things teachers have in common with their students helped teachers see similarities with their students who appeared most dissimilar. In other words, teachers may assume substantial differences with a particular student upon initially meeting him or her in class. For example, previous studies indicated that positive indicators for affective TSRs and students' EBPs varied among students in kindergarten lower primary grades LPGand higher primary grades Silver et al.
Raters with different ages, standpoints, values, and degrees of understanding a student might rate his or her EBPs inconsistently Van Lier et al. Moreover, several studies have found that different raters might account for the lack of coherence in research on the link between affective TSRs and students' EBPs.
For example, some previous studies have relied on EBPs rated by students, which were only weakly related to positive indicators of affective TSRs Troop-Gordon and Kopp, ; Li et al. In contrast, other researchers found that student EBPs rated by teachers were strongly related to negative indicators of affective TSRs Palermo et al. Female students tend to have more affective TSRs than male students do Spilt et al. As a result, gender might influence the correlation between positive or negative indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs.
Several empirical studies have showed gender differences in the link between indicators of affective TSRs and students' EBPs, such as closeness, support, and warmth Ostrov and Crick, ; Spilt et al.
Indexed keywords primarily included terms reflecting affective TSRs relationship scloseness, warmth, support, empathy, trust, sensitivity, conflict, negativity, and anger and students' EBPs behavior problems, externalizing, aggression, conduct problem, hyperactivity, and oppositional. When articles could not be found online, we obtained full-text versions of articles from libraries.
All articles obtained were written in English.
We used inclusion and exclusion criteria to analyze and filter the collected studies. Literature Exclusion Criteria We included articles based on the following criteria: Table 1 summarizes the studies included in the Meta-Analysis. Studies included in the meta-analysis. Coding Study To facilitate meta-analysis, feature coding was conducted on 57 articles.
We considered the following variables: The following criteria guided the coding procedure: When coding was complete, based on principles of meta-analysis Lipsey and Wilson,effect sizes between affective TSRs and students' EBPs were calculated for each sample. A fixed effects model calculated the homogeneity test and mean effect.
Averaged weighted within- and between-inverse variance weights correlation coefficients of independent samples were used to compute mean effect sizes.
Moderators were decided by the homogeneity test, which revealed variance in effect sizes between different samples' characteristics.
This study used meta-analysis to test whether each moderator accounted for the variation in the effect sizes. In these reviewed studies, 73, students participated, and the sample sizes ranged from 20 to Furthermore, a fixed effects model was used to homogenize the analysis. These effect sizes were suitable for moderator analysis. Therefore, we used meta-analysis of variance to examine whether culture, age, and report types of EBPs moderated the correlations between affective TSRs and students' EBPs, and we used meta-regression analyses to examine whether gender influenced the relation between affective TSRs and students' EBPs.
Results indicate that the correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and EBPs was stronger among LPG students than other students except mixed group and weaker among kindergarten students than other students.
The correlation between positive indicators of affective TSRs and EBPs were stronger when rated by teachers or parents than by others. These results indicate that the correlation between negative indicators of affective TSRs and EBPs were lower when student rated than when rated by others. Gender To examine whether gender moderated the links between affective TSRs and students' EBPs, r was meta-regressed onto the percentage of male students in each sample. Meta-regression analyses with effect size regressed onto percentage of male students.
Publication Bias To examine whether the results were biased due to effect sizes from various sources, we drew a funnel plot see Figure 1. It showed that the effect sizes were symmetrically distributed on both sides of the average effect size, and an Egger's regression Egger et al. Egger's regression is an effective method for examining publication bias Teng et al. Together, these results indicated stability in the overall correlation between affective TSRs and students' EBPs in this study.
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Funnel plot of effect sizes of the correlation between affective teacher-student relationships and students' externalizing behavior problems. Discussion In the current meta-analysis 57 recent studies, with effect sizes and 73, students are reviewed. We examined the effect sizes of correlations between affective TSRs and students' EBPs, revealing culture, age, report type of EBPs and gender as moderators influencing the links.